Vol 70, No 2 (1989)

175th anniversary of Kazan Medical Institute

Khamitov K.S., Galiullin A.N.


In the acts on founding a university in Kazan - the affirmative charter and statute, signed on November 5, 1804, among its four branches was included the branch of medical or medical sciences, but the opening of the medical faculty took place only on May 14, 1814. The process of forming the faculty, its development, and scientific and pedagogical work initially proceeded under difficult conditions. For a long time the faculty had no base of its own. The funds allocated by the government were quite insignificant. The Faculty had to pass especially hard tests in those years when the university was practically ruled by the reactionary and obscurantist M.L. Magnitsky. The medical faculty was then deprived of almost all of its professors. The few anatomical preparations by order of M. L. Magnitsky were buried in the cemetery. But even in these very unfavorable conditions new progressive forces were maturing in the University. In 1826 the rector of the University became a brilliant scientist and teacher N.I. Lobachevsky. He gathered around himself a nucleus of talented, creative and progressive scholars. Under his direct supervision the main institutions of medical faculty were built: anatomic theater, clinic buildings.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):81-87
pages 81-87 views

On the influence of heliogeophysical factors on the health of patients with cardiovascular diseases

Valimukhametova D.A., Akhmetzyanov I.M.


Throughout life, the organism constantly has to adapt to continuously changing environmental conditions. Sensitivity of patients with cardiovascular diseases to heliogeophysical and adverse weather conditions ranges from 42 to 100% and is manifested by heliometeotropic reactions of varying severity. Studies have shown that sick people are affected by sudden intensification of solar activity, geomagnetic storms and changes of meteorological elements, and the organism may react to variations of external factors 1-2 days before the change of heliogeophysical conditions, on the day of direct exposure to the factors and 2-3 days after their change. The greatest biotropic effect of meteorological factors is manifested when the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field changes against the background of a sharp increase in solar activity. Under the influence of geomagnetic field strength fluctuations, a person suffering from a chronic disease may easily go into a state of stress. It determines the necessity to develop methods of forecasting unfavorable geomagnetic and meteorological situations, which can provoke aggravation of pathological processes.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):88-90
pages 88-90 views

Enzymatic diagnosis of coronary heart disease

Latfullin I.A., Sviridkina L.P., Aglullina E.I., Ivanova S.V., Izosimova L.A., Duleeva T.V.


The importance of enzyme diagnostics of myocardial infarction is currently beyond doubt. Determination of asparagine and alanine transaminases activity has been replaced by the study of more sensitive so-called "cardiospecific" enzymes: creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and their isoenzymes. LDH isoenzyme1 has special specificity to the heart muscle, the content of which is studied by hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity (α-HBDH). However, the patterns of changes in the activity of this enzyme in various forms of ischemic heart disease remain insufficiently studied. The content of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase enzyme in cardiac muscle is insignificant; however, there are reports in the literature about increased activity of this enzyme in the acute period of myocardial infarction. The degree of hyperenzymemia in acute myocardial infarction usually correlates with the size of ischemic necrosis focus, so a significant increase in enzyme activity is found in those forms of the disease, which proceed with a clear clinical picture and are accompanied by typical changes on ECG. Meanwhile, clinicians still face difficulties in differential diagnosis of such variants of ischemic heart disease as various forms of angina pectoris, small focal myocardial necrosis, recurrent myocardial infarctions and cardialgia of different genesis. The similarity of their clinical symptomatology and unclear ECG criteria make us return to the analysis of enzyme activity changes in various forms of coronary heart disease.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):90-95
pages 90-95 views

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system status in rheumatoid arthritis patients

Salikhov I.G., Agisheva K.N.


Recently, there has been significantly increased interest in the study of the role of free-radical lipid oxidation reactions in the development of the pathological process in rheumatoid arthritis. Immune complexes formed in this disease are a stimulus for neutrophil chemotaxis and initiation of phagocytosis reactions. The process of phagocytosis, accompanied by the release of a large number of reactive oxygen radicals, leads to damage of neutrophils themselves, release of lysosomal enzymes, degradation of collagen, hyaluronic acid and to connective tissue damage.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):95-99
pages 95-99 views

Disease - injection - disease

Talantov V.V.


The invasion of medicine into the internal environment of the body in the form of injection therapy along with successes could not but bring complications caused primarily by trauma, introduction of microflora, allergic reactions. Less studied was the group of complications caused by the irritating effect of subcutaneous and intramuscular injections, which is particularly important for understanding the whole complex of sufferings of patients receiving long-term injection therapy. This type of complications often occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus, since a significant portion of them receive injections of insulin and other medications on a daily basis.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):99-102
pages 99-102 views

Lung surgery in children

Rokytsky M.R., Akinfiev A.V., Grebnev P.N., Khabibullina R.V., Poryvaeva V.N., Molchanov N.N., Volkova N.V., Mikheev S.A., Fattykhov Y.I., Zakomyrdin A.I., Shagiakhmetova D.S.


The present report is the result of twenty years of research in the field of pediatric surgical pulmonology. During this period, over 3000 children with acute and chronic surgical lung diseases were treated in the hospital, 9785 bronchoscopies and over 2000 bronchographies were performed, 1473 radical lung operations and over 500 temporary bronchial occlusions were performed.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):103-105
pages 103-105 views

About treatment of chronic paraproctitis

Salikhov I.A., Bolshakov A.I., Kolomensky S.N., Arzhanov Y.V., Gilmutdinov A.A., Karpov A.V., Starkov N.K.


Chronic paraproctitis is a consequence of poorly treated acute paraproctitis and is characterized by an internal rectal opening, a fistulous passage with perifocal inflammatory and scarring changes in the intestinal wall and pelvic cage spaces, and an external opening on the perineal skin. It is a rather common disease and occurs, according to literature sources and our data, in 15% of patients with rectal pathology. In our experience, there is no downward trend in the incidence of the disease.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):105-107
pages 105-107 views

Determination of β2-microglobulin in urine and blood of bladder cancer patients

Belyaev A.R., Sitdykova M.E., Zubkov A.Y., Begicheva E.V.


The functional state of the kidneys and upper urinary tract often determines the type and nature of surgical treatment for bladder cancer. One of the tests for renal dysfunction is the determination of the low molecular weight protein ß2-microglobulin in the blood and urine. Protein concentrations in the blood and urine are altered in a number of inflammatory, autoimmune, infectious, and oncological diseases.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):107-109
pages 107-109 views

Circulatory changes in the extra-orginal vessels of the ovaries after removal of the uterus without appendages

Kapeliushnik N.L., Volodin S.K.


Disorders of hemodynamics as a result of damage or disconnection of vessels supplying the glands have a dramatic effect on their condition. Disorders of ovarian blood supply can also occur after surgical interventions. After amputation of the uterus without appendages some patients often have severe postoperative complications in the form of menopausal syndromes, while others do not. These changes are associated not only with the removal of the hormone, the endometrium, but also with a lack of local circulation, requiring preservation of the anastomosis between the uterine and ovarian arteries.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):109-112
pages 109-112 views

Borderline neuropsychiatric disorders in pregnancy

Mendelevich D.M., Sakharov E.A.


Modern research in the field of psychosomatic medicine reveals a steady increase in interest in borderline neuropsychiatric disorders occurring during pregnancy. As evidenced by numerous literature sources, to date, there is no clarity on the issue of clinical features of borderline neuropsychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Domestic authors have considered these disorders only as part of the toxicosis of pregnant women, although many researchers have emphasized the fact that borderline neuropsychiatric disorders may develop in this population in addition to toxicosis.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):112-114
pages 112-114 views

Immunoglobulin content in the blood of pregnant women and the fetus, breast milk during the adaptation of women to the adverse factors of the working environment

Pigalov A.P., Dobronetsky V.S.


We aimed to specify the effect of the duration of a woman's industrial contact with the complex of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons at the level of their maximum permissible concentrations on the content of immunoglobulins A, M, G in the blood serum in early pregnancy, in the umbilical cord blood and breast milk in the first week after delivery.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):114-115
pages 114-115 views

Ways to reduce the incidence of pneumonia in children

Belogorskaya E.V., Kuznetsova L.A.


Respiratory diseases occupy the first place in the structure of childhood diseases: acute respiratory infections, bronchitis, pneumonia. After perinatal pathology, pneumonia is one of the main causes of infant mortality.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):116-118
pages 116-118 views

Study of antiacidotic activity of dimefosfon

Studentova I.A., Zaikonnikova I.V., Vizel A.O., Garaev R.S.


Acidotic shift of acid-base status is an important pathogenetic link in many diseases. Its urgent correction in urgent patients is usually carried out by intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate or trisamine, chemically neutralizing excess acidic blood metabolites. However, these drugs do not eliminate intracellular pH shifts, do not affect the metabolic processes in the tissues that caused acidosis. They can be used only under hospital conditions under constant monitoring of acid-base status, requiring the use of special equipment.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):118-120
pages 118-120 views

Казанский ордена Трудового Красного Знамени медицинский институт имени С. В. Курашова

Khasanova N.K., Beletskaya L.V.


One of the first in Russia, the Department of Ophthalmology at the Kazan Medical Institute, founded in 1867, produced a pleiad of remarkable scientists whose works were devoted to the most topical problems of ophthalmology. The works of Professors E. V. Adamyuk (1839-1906), A. G. Agababov (1863-1922), V. V. Chirkovsky (1875-1956), V. E. Adamyuk (1877-1950), A. N. Murzin (1885-1953) created Kazan school of ophthalmologists, which was always responsive to the needs of practical healthcare, was in the forefront of struggle with blindness and with the most frequent eye diseases. Thus, the name of the world famous founder of the chair E. V. Adamyuk is connected with the formation of the national ophthalmology. His doctoral thesis "About the intraocular pressure" was a significant event in the world literature. The main scientific direction of the research carried out at the Department of Ophthalmology since the first days of its establishment up to the present time was the study of the problem of glaucoma.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):120-121
pages 120-121 views

Anti-carious effect of fluoride and secretory immunity

Ovrutsky G.D.


It has been proved that among the factors influencing the level of dental caries and the course of this disease, the amount of fluoride that enters the body is a determining factor. Under normal conditions the main source is drinking water. The anti-carious effect is inherent in fluoride, as contained in natural waters, and artificially introduced into the water. Once in the body, fluoride is firmly attached to the enamel. At the same time in the enamel prisms represented by hydroxyapatite, one of the hydroxyl groups is replaced by fluorine, forming a hard-to-solve fluorapatite. This view of the mechanism of the anti-carious effect of fluoride is quite reasonable.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):121-123
pages 121-123 views

Development of pathogenetic ways to prevent and treat dental caries in children

Saifullina K.M.


Peculiarities of the clinical course of dental caries in children are explained by the resistance of dental hard tissues and the reactivity properties of the organism. It is known that the formation of tooth resistance to dental caries depends on the conditions of antenatal development of the child, the state of his health in the period of neonatal and infant age. Under the influence of unfavorable factors the processes of intra-mandibular development and primary mineralization of teeth are disturbed, the conditions providing timely and qualitative maturation of their hard tissues are changed. In children exposed to risk factors, already in the period of temporary bite formation there is a significant prevalence and intensity of initial caries, a high rate of growth of its developed stages.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):123-125
pages 123-125 views

Research by the Department of Otorhinolaryngology on the problem of hearing loss

Svatko L.G.


The struggle for the prevention of hearing lesions, early detection and treatment of ear diseases are urgent problems of both domestic otorhinolaryngology and medicine in general. The introduction of new diagnostic methods and effective treatments have led to a significant decrease in the frequency of inflammatory ear diseases. At the same time, a number of factors contribute to the prevalence and growth of hearing loss among the population - influenza epidemics, the increasing impact of noise and vibration due to the mechanization of industrial and agricultural production, transport, the use of aminoglycoside antibiotics, etc. The increase in life expectancy also increases the number of hearing loss due to the development of presbyacusis in old age. The results of mass examinations of the population showed that 6% of the population has a hearing organ pathology. These circumstances dictate the need for further development and improvement of surdological care.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):125-127
pages 125-127 views

Prevention and treatment of obstructive complications after adenomectomy of the prostate

Sitdykov E.N., Basiashvili T.G.


Adenomectomy of the prostate, being basically a radical method of surgical treatment, according to the literature data, often contributes to the development of obstructive complications, the frequency of which has considerably increased for the last 10-15 years and varies within a wide range from 8.8% to 40%.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):127-130
pages 127-130 views

On the biological appropriateness of the febrile response

Mukhutdinova F.I.


What is fever - friend or foe? Should it be treated symptomatically? Is fever a well-organized defense mechanism, important for survival, or is it an adverse reaction to stress, at best neutral and at worst dangerous? - these are the range of questions that constantly trouble doctors.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):130-133
pages 130-133 views

External biliary fistulas and acholia syndrome

Popov A.N.


Complications of surgical treatment of biliary pathology, including mechanical jaundice, include external biliary fistulas. Their formation, in particular spontaneous, is usually preceded by inflammatory changes of gallbladder and ducts or liver with the outcome in suppuration, and the main cause in most cases is cholelithiasis. When the pus bursts through all the layers of the abdominal wall, the bile is expelled simultaneously with the pus or some time later. An external biliary fistula can form after a surgical opening of the pus.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):133-135
pages 133-135 views

Non-specific and specific neutrophil adhesion in the pathogenesis and clinic of rheumatoid arthritis

Fomina L.L., Salikhov I.G., Mayansky A.N., Chebotar I.V.


We set out to study the specific adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) mediated by immunoglobulin G and complement СЗ-component (as the most frequent components of tissue immune deposits in rheumatoid arthritis), To specify clinical informativity of the test of non-specific adhesion of neutrophils and to clarify the character of the influence of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and rheumatoid factor (RF) on the course of adhesive reactions.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):135-136
pages 135-136 views

Screening of female recovering patients after viral hepatitis

Vanesyan A.S., Ushakova I.A., Barkovskaya M.A., Gabitova R.M., Mustakova V.L., Tsaregorodtseva R.G., Svyatsky B.A.


The aim of this work was to increase the reliability of studies by establishing specific timing of blood sampling for ALAT activity taking into account the phases of the menstrual cycle in women of reproductive age before discharge from hospital and during their follow-up after viral hepatitis.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):136-137
pages 136-137 views

Multiple complications of paratonsillitis with a favorable outcome

Alimetov K.A., Jabarov D.D.


Inflammatory process in paratonsillitis can spread to the cellular spaces of the neck and mediastinum with the development of severe complications. We present our own observation of multiple complications of paratonsillitis with a favorable outcome.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):137-137
pages 137-137 views

Paradontal nidus and consequences of its elimination

Goryachev N.A.


The role of dental foci of chronic infection is well known. The majority of works are devoted to tonsillar and dental (periapical) foci. Although the focus of chronic inflammation in the periodontium is considered to be well-drained, modern periodontologists believe that it has exceptional pathogenicity. Currently, the connection between the pathogenic action of periodontal disease and periodontal pockets has been revealed, and, as confirmed by us, regardless of the nosological affiliation of periodontal disease. Thus, comparing the indices of immunobiological state of the body (the activity of lysozyme of mixed and parotid saliva, blood serum, the concentration in blood of serum immunoglobulins G, A and M, the level of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and the frequency of microbial sensitization) in patients with chronic gingivitis, periodontitis and periodontitis we found significant changes in these indicators only in patients burdened with periodontal pockets.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):137-138
pages 137-138 views

A case of alveolar echinococcosis of multiple localization

Khakimov I.M., Ziyatdinov K.M.


We observed a case of sternum, body of III thoracic vertebra, parietal pleura, and diaphragm affected by alveolar echinococcus.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):138-139
pages 138-139 views

Absorptive function of the colon in diphyllobothriosis

Babichenko O.E.


Absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is a very important biological process by which the body is provided with the necessary nutrients. Absorption reflects the specificity of metabolism, depends on the course of physiological processes and is regulated by neurohumoral factors. Digestion occurs mainly in the small intestine. It is carried out with the participation of a number of enzymes produced by the pancreas, intestine, and liver.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):139-139
pages 139-139 views

The medical intelligentsia of Tatarstan (touches to a social portrait)

Khaziakhmetova V.S.


The social structure of Soviet society is one of the most urgent problems from the sphere of social sciences. Intellectuals attract considerable attention: the features of their social appearance, the nature of their professional detachments, the peculiarities of their replenishment, etc. The development of the Soviet medical intelligentsia at the present stage remains one of the least studied problems. Doctors, pharmacists, paramedics, nurses, laboratory staff, sanitary services, physical education instructors, i.e., about 1200 thousand doctors of almost 200 specialties, 3159 thousand middle medical personnel, etc., should be referred to this social-professional group acting as a sub-element of the social structure.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):140-142
pages 140-142 views

To the problem of carcinogenicity in the oil and petrochemical industry

Gimadeev M.M.


Under the conditions of the modern scientific and technological revolution, the rapid development of industry, transport, agriculture, growth and development of cities is often accompanied by changes in the natural environment towards its deterioration. This is evidenced by the data characterizing the state of the environment in many cities of our country. In some industrial centers and cities, despite the measures taken in recent years, the environment continues to be polluted by emissions from various enterprises, thermal power plants, transport. Of particular concern is the harmful effect of various environmental factors on the health of the population and their living conditions.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):142-145
pages 142-145 views

Problems of shaping a healthy lifestyle

Tazetdinova A.B., Andreeva T.I., Goncharov A.T.


The "Main Directions for the Development of Public Health and Reorganization of Public Health in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan and for the Period until the Year 2000" (1987) emphasized that preventive health care has been a fundamental principle and ideology of public health protection. (1987) emphasized that at all stages of the development of Soviet health care, the preventive direction was and remains the underlying principle, the ideology of people's health protection, and "the basis of preventive activities should be the assertion of a healthy lifestyle for each person and the entire society.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):146-148
pages 146-148 views

Conductor for tendons

Nettov G.G.


Conducting the injured end of the tendon under the finger block ligament in the so-called critical zone presents significant technical difficulties. Narrowness of the lumen under the block ligament leads to usbarization, unravelling of the conducted tendon end, and repeated attempts lead to traumatization of both the block ligament and the tendon end, and to an increase in the operation time. The use of the existing guide from V.I. Rozov's set does not eliminate the above drawbacks. If it is impossible to guide the tendon, it is often necessary to longitudinally dissect the block ligament with its subsequent suturing over the tendon, which leads to scar adhesion of the tendon with the sutured ligament in the postoperative period. This prolongs the immobilization period and worsens the functional outcomes of the surgery.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):148-149
pages 148-149 views

Device for skin perforation and preparation of thin dermal strips

Izmailov G.A., Toporkov N.P., Chenborisov V.S., Gabdrakhmanov F.G., Izmailov S.G., Garaev R.R.


To obtain a perforated skin flap and dermal strips, we proposed a device that has rollers and a cutting plate with cutters.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):149-149
pages 149-149 views

Peter Franzevich Lesgaft

Valishin E.S.


Celebrating the 175th anniversary of Kazan Medical Institute, we cannot but recall the names of prominent figures who have made a significant contribution to the development of medical science and the training of physicians. The most prominent of them, of course, is the largest anatomist, a talented teacher, the founder of the science of physical education, and a progressive social activist, Petr Frantsevich Lesgaft.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):149-152
pages 149-152 views

125 years of the Department of Pathological Anatomy at Kazan Medical Institute

Dobrynin V.A.


According to the June 18, 1863 University Charter, the fourth department of pathological anatomy in Russia (after Moscow, St.Petersburg and Derpt) was created at the Kazan University Medical Faculty. On October 21, 1863 A.V. Petrov (1837-1885) was appointed the first senior lecturer of the Department of Pathiatomy, who left his mark not only as an organizer of educational process, but also as a scientist and public figure. His studies on typhoid fever and uremia are classic. His experimental work, which showed the contagiousness of tuberculosis, anticipated the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by R. Koch. He gave much strength and energy to the Kazan Society of Physicians, of which he was the chairman for many years.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):152-153
pages 152-153 views

Development of clinical gastroenterology in Kazan Medical Institute

Bilich I.L., Shigabutdinova F.G.


The range of traditional problems of the oldest university of our country - Kazan Medical Institute - includes problems of physiology and pathology of digestive organs. The founders of clinical gastroenterology are widely known in our country Professors S. S. Zimnitsky (the pupil of S. P. Botkin and I. P. Pavlov), M. N. Cheboksarov, A. L. Luria. In 1936 Prof. S.S. Zimnitsky published a monograph "On disorders of secretory activity of gastric glands in terms of functional diagnostics" (clinical lectures for students and doctors). In another work he expounded the original acid "sour" theory of the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers. At about the same time Prof. M. N. Cheboksarov published a work on pyloroduodenitis ("On peptic ulcer without ulcer") and A. L. Luria described irritable stomach syndrome (preulcer phase of the disease).

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):153-154
pages 153-154 views

Letter to the Editor. Vol. 70, No. 2 (1989)

Mustafin A.M.


People of elderly and senile age account for 14% of the population in Kazan, they account for up to 60% of outpatient visits. However, even these figures do not give a complete picture of the level of morbidity of this contingent, because some of them, even in severe cases, do not go to the doctor, considering their condition normal for their age or incurable. This is often confirmed by doctors, trying in some way to justify the lack of a positive therapeutic effect and thereby causing irreparable harm to the patient. If we consider that the proportion of older age groups is currently growing, we can assume that in the near future healthcare will have to address the acute problems associated with health care for the elderly and seniors. Many of them are already overdue.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):157-158
pages 157-158 views

Chronicle. Vol. 70, No. 2 (1989)

Latfullin I.A.


The plenum of the Board of the All-Union Scientific Society of Physicians took place in Kaliningrad on June 16-17, 1988. It was devoted to the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with the most frequent internal diseases (IHD, hypertension, bronchopulmonary and gastrointestinal diseases) in the out-patient-polyclinic conditions.

Kazan medical journal. 1989;70(2):158-159
pages 158-159 views

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