Vol 75, No 3 (1994)

Theoretical and clinical medicine

Antidotes of cholinesterase inhibitors of the section of low-toxic phosphoroorganic сompounds

Garaev R.S.


The toxicity, anticholinesterase activity and antagonism with anticholinesterase substances of different phosphoroorganic compounds are studied. The antagonism of these drugs with anticholinesterase substances is connected with their capacity to interact reversibly with active surface of cholinesterase and to protect thic enzyme against inhibition, to show anticonvulsive activity, to -suppress liver monooxygenase system function. One of the representatives of the series — dimephosphone — has potentiated the antidote effects on atropine M-cholinoblockator and diperoxime cholinesterase reactivator and has normalized some disturbed functions of animals’ organism in the course of application after intoxication by an- ticholineterase substances.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):166-169
pages 166-169 views

Low-toxic nonantisholinesterase phosphoroorganic compounds — а new advanced class of nootropes

Khafizyanova R.K.


The effect of new original low-toxic nonanticholinesterase phosphororganic compounds of acyclic and cyclic structures on the central nervous system is studied. Their pronounced mnemotropic and antiamnestic effects are revealed. The drugs investigated are successfully used as nootropes for the treatment of children with intellectually mnestic and emotionally volitional disorders in intellectual incompetence.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):169-171
pages 169-171 views

Binase as a medicinal agent

Potselueva L.A.


The pathes of injection of the bacterial ribonuclease from Bacillus intermedins spore bacteria into the organism as an antiviral agent are experimentally well-founded

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):172-174
pages 172-174 views

Functions of active chlorine transport in the membrane of skeletal muscles of mammals

Poletaev G.I., Urazaev A.K.


It is found that cellular volume recovery j in hypertonic mediums occurs with chlorine transport involved. The increase of osmotic pressure causes the initial dehydration of the cell, then its volume is recovered up to the initial values in these conditions. The activity of chlorine transport is under the oppressive effect of the motor nerve. Postdenervational increase of intracellular content of CI is one of the reasons of the production of new cho- linoreceptors in extrasympathetic region of the muscular membrane, that is to say where thery are absent in normal muscles. By this means there is a relationship between denerva- tional activation of chlorine transport and protein synthesis processes of cholinoreceptors.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):174-176
pages 174-176 views

Neurotrophic control of functional properties of the superficial membrane of phase muscular fibers

Volkov E.M.


The involvement of neurogenic regulator peptides, motoneurons synthesized in perikaryon and transfered to the muscle by axonal transport (chemical trophic factors) as well as processes combined by the term «nervous impulsation» in neurotrophic control of functional properties of the membrane of muscular fibers is shown

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):180-183
pages 180-183 views

Desensitization in cholinergic synapse: mechanisms and physiologic role

Giniatullin R.A.


The development of desensitization during the rhythmic activity of synapse as a result of the action of mediator nonquantal secretion is described, the data of a capacity to accelerate desensitization in a series of drugs and biologically active compounds are. presented. A concept of postsynaptic plasticity qr chemical senapse is proposed which provided the basis for short-term and long-term transfers of cholinoreccptors into different kinetic state under the influence of acetyccholine by itself resulting in the adaptation of synaptic apparatus to the new conditions and is the basis for purposeful correction of the synaptic transfer.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):177-180
pages 177-180 views

Theory of the initiation of external coagulant blood system

Baikeev R.F.


The correlation of our results and well- known experimental data with theoretical conceptions of molecular mechanisms of the initiation of external coagulant blood system is perfomed.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):188-190
pages 188-190 views

Clinicomyographic characteristic of the pathology of neurotrophic regulation of skeletal muscles

Bogdanov E.I.


The clinical, electromyographic and mechanomyographic examinations of patients with diseases of central and peripheric nervous systems and the experimental myographic and morphohistochemical investigations of various models of impulsive and unimpulsive neurotrophic effect disorders on mice’ muscles arc performed. Based on the clinicoexperimen- tal comparisons the conclusions are drawn regarding the importance of mechanomyography in the diagnosis of neuromuscular system state, in the development of estimation methods of the course and efficacy of therapeutic and rehabilitation measures in neurogenetic lesions of muscles.


Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):183-185
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Thromboplastinemia — an initiator of continuous hemocoagulation in organism and disseminated interavascular coagulation syndrome

Andrushko I.A.


The concept of thromboplastinemia as an initial factor of phisiologic and pathologic intravascular activation of hemostasis system is fully validated. It is stated that tissue thromboplastin comprises «the fragments» of cell membranes where 5'-nucleotidase is the marker enzyme. The increase of this enzyme activity is indirect evidence of the presence of tissue thromboplastin in vascular bed, that is bears witness to thromboplastinemia. Experimentally and in clinic the direct correlation is established between the activity increase of 5'-nucleotidase and the extent of hypercoagu- lemia, proving the presence of relationship between thromboplastinemia and intravascular blood coagulation.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):185-187
pages 185-187 views

Fibronectin, hemostasis and phagocytosis

Litvinov R.I.


On the basis of experimental and literature data a hypothesis is proposed that plasma fibronectin serves as a mediator between hemostasis and RES. Fibronectin is thought to be an opsonic factor in the elimination of throm- bogenic particles from blood flow. As an example of thrombogenic particles soluble fibrin precursors covalently bound to plasma fibronectin are examined. Interrelated chages of plasma fibronectin level, DIC signes, and alterations of the Kupffer cells’ morphologic- and-functional state are in favor of the hypothesis. The idea is also proved by the presence of specific protein receptors for fibronectin on the surface of mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils. It is suggested that plasma fibronectin and phagocytes represent a united antithrombotic mechanism which prevents excessive intravascular activation of hemostatic system in pathology.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):190-193
pages 190-193 views

Clinical prospects of the study of phagocytosis

Pikusa O.I., Mayansky A.N.


The possibilities of the use of phagocyte — dependent reactions in general clinical diegno- sis in the determination of m.edical tactics and control of health reserves are analyzed. The methods of functional estimate of phagocytosis which may be used for practical tasks are recommended. The prospects for the study of phogocytic mechanisms in the development of immunodeficient, allergic states, chronic inflammatory diseases are shown.


Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):193-196
pages 193-196 views

Phagocytic reactions of inflammation in the clinic and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

Salikhov I.G.


The inflammation underlying rheumatoid arthritis (RA), being a multicomponent and multi-stage process, essentially determines the clinical polymorphism of the disease. The analysis of the literature data on the functional state of neutrophils as effector cells of rheumatoid inflammation, on the participation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the formation of the clinical picture of the disease is difficult: they are few, contradictory and rarely contain conclusions of applied significance. There is no consensus on the nature of chemotactic, phagocytic and bactericidal functions of neutrophils. In addition, the functional state of blood neutrophils, synovial fluid and related phenomena is currently an insufficiently studied aspect of the pathogenesis and clinic of rheumatoid arthritis.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):197-199
pages 197-199 views

On the nature and mechanisms of functional activity disorder of hepatic macrophages after extreme action on organism

Kharin G.M.


The dynamics of morphofunctional state disorders of stellate reticuloendotheliocytes of the liver is studied using models of traumatic and burn shock in rats. The course of shock process is accompanied by progressive supression of the phagocytic function of RES and destructive changes of hepatic macrophages. An intimate connection between the disfunction of RES of the liver, intraorgan blood flow disorder, plasma fibronectine concentration change and hemocoagulative disorders U revealed. The important role of the functional activity of mononuclear phagacytes system in shock pathogenesis is supported in experiments with artificial stimulation and blockade of RES.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):199-202
pages 199-202 views

Immunopathologic lesion of the fetus in gestoses

Fazteeva L.K.


The profound variations in ontogenesis of the immunologic status of newborns, the formation of the changed reactivity with nona- dequate specific immune response to antigens of BCG and AKDS vaccine in newbons during the first year of life are revealed in cli- nicoimmunologic examination in gestoses.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):202-204
pages 202-204 views

Diagnosis and treatment of postoperative comissural ileus

Krasilnikov D.M.


The dynamic observation and roentgenoen- doscopic examinations are of importance in the diagnosis of postoperative comissural ileus. The decompression and prolonged intubation of intestine are obligatory in relaparotomy. The intensive therapy, all kinds of intestine stimulation including ultraviolet laser blood photomodification are necessary in the early period after relaparotomy.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):207-210
pages 207-210 views

Retroperitoneal hematomas in closed injury of the abdomen

Davletshin A.K.


The origins, pathes and zones of the propagation of retroperitoneal hematomas and their effect on the motor function of digestive tract are studied in the experiment and in clinic. The combined uninvasive methods of the diagnosis of abdomen injury depth (abdominal wall, abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space), the methods of prophylaxis and treatment of enteropareses developing in retroperitoneal hemorrhages are proposed.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):211-213
pages 211-213 views

Piezoelectric lithotripsy in the treatment of urolithiasis

Sitdykova M.E., Sitdyko E.N., Maiorova N.A.


The experience of the treatment of patients with urolithiasis by means of extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy using the equipment of the «Wolf» firm — the «Piezolith-2300» and «Piezolith-2500-10» apparatuses is generalized.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):214-216
pages 214-216 views

Role of the lymphatic system in physical loads

Mikusev Y.E.


The data of the role and function of the lymphatic system in muscular activity are presented.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):216-219
pages 216-219 views

Lymphatic system and homeostasis in feverish reaction

Mukhutdinov F.I.


The changes of organism functions of adapted nature as well as disturbance in feverish reaction are extended to the lymphatic system — its resorptional, transport and bar- rier-and-filtration functions. 

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):219-222
pages 219-222 views

Histogenesis of adenolymphoma of salivary glands

Shamsutdinov N.S.


Adenolymphomas — the true tumors of salivary glands, the formation of their epithelial component is caused by tumoral transformation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells of the distal parth of salivary glands ducts. T- and B-lymphocytes are involved in the formation of tumor stroma. The epithelial antigen may be used as an effective marker in the verification of tumor epithelial component.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):222-224
pages 222-224 views

Stromogenesis in primary tumors and metastases

Petrov S.B.


As many as 570 cancerous tumors of different localization and 147 metastases in liver are studied using morphohistochemical stereometric methods. The morphogenesis of stroma and formation of secondary nodes of cancerous tumors repeat on the whole the peculiarities of initial tumors structure, supporting the experimentally found capacity of cancerous cells to cause stromainduction and angiogenesis in the process of tumor growth.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):224-226
pages 224-226 views

Social hygiene and healthcare management

On the issue of the organizational strategy for the development of compulsory health insurance in the Republic of Tatarstan

Khabriev R.U., Nizamov I.G., Zaripov М.M., Latypov M.S.


The problems existing in the healthcare sector are most noticeably manifested when considering the transition of the republic to a system of compulsory medical insurance, since the very idea of such a reform arose when searching for ways out of the domestic healthcare system from a severe and continuously worsening crisis that could lead to serious social consequences. In accordance with the general concept, compulsory health insurance should provide:

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):240-242
pages 240-242 views

Dependence of the incidence of some stomatologic diseases of children on social and hygienic conditions

Gainullin A.N.


The elimination of the effect of 44% social and hygienic medicobiologic unfavourable factors in the woman pregnancy period allows to reduce the incidence of dental caries in chidren up to 2 years of age by 25,8%, the intensity—by 16,6% as compared with cont- rol. The complex of medicososial measures  in children aged 3 to 6 years in the two-year observation period eliminating the unfavourable factors by 56,3% allows to reduce the incidence of dental caries as compared with control by 30,3%, the intensity — by a factor of 6,6. In children of school age with decreasing unfavourable factors by 65,9% as à result of the one-year medicosocial measures the incidence of dental caries reduces by 22,6% and the intensity — by a factor of 2,3 as compared with control. The reduction of caries amounts to 50 — 95% depending on the favourable prediction extent. As this takes place the degree of marginal parodontium lesion reduces by a factor of 8.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):243-244
pages 243-244 views

Medicodemographic indices and sickness rate of children in families with social risk factors

Yarullin A.K.


The problems of birth rate, abortion rate, complications of pregnancy and birth, perinatal and infant death rate, sickness rate of children in families with various factors of social risk: bad economic and living conditions, bad habits, unfavourable conditions of work, young age of parents, incomplete large families are considered.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):245-247
pages 245-247 views


Defects of the bone base of the skeleton and the possibility of their elimination using biologically based methods

Zulkarneev R.A., Zulkarneev R.R.


To close the flaw in the musculoskeletal system, the Dutchman Nehren used an animal bone back in 1668, thereby opening one of the most interesting chapters of reconstructive surgery. The use of one's own bone for this purpose is associated with the names of Mckiven, Lexer, Albi, and already in the XVII century, its transplantation brought up to 50% successful outcomes. However, only in the 40s of the XX century, bone transplantation began to be performed more widely, tissue banks appeared, and immunologists began to study the antigenic properties of bone, which should have further expanded the possibilities of reconstructive surgery.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):226-229
pages 226-229 views


The main directions of scientific research of the Department of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Pathology

Amirov N.X., Sitdikova I.D.


The relevance of studying the problems of occupational health and occupational diseases is determined by the development of scientific and technological progress and an increase in labor productivity associated with the widespread spread of computer technologies.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):232-235
pages 232-235 views

Informational and computational methods in sanitary toxicology

Kovyazin V.G.


The use of the methods of biometry as statistical simulation of the «biological norm» state, estimate of the «dose (concentration) — time-—effect (response)» relatioship by mathematical experimental design methods, prediction of the danger class of organic substances according to structural fragments of the molecule, classification method using Baies’s training procedure is suggested.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):235-236
pages 235-236 views

Boundary neuropsychical disorders in persons under the influence of physical factors

Yakhin К.К.


Out of workers of industrial enterprises working in conditions of the effect of industrial physical factors (noise, vibration, electromagnetic fields of SHF-range, sensor deprivation) the independent group of psychical disorders is chosen, their relative specificity is stated.


Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):236-239
pages 236-239 views

History of medicine

Memories of the medical faculty

Golikov A.I.


In August 1919, I came to Kazan from the wilderness of the Penza province (b. Chembarsky district, now Belinsky district of the Penza region, 50 km from the railway station), because in the spring of that year I applied to Kazan University with a request to enroll me in the mathematical department of physics. For admission to students, it was enough to submit documents on graduation from a secondary educational institution (gymnasium, real school). Not finding myself among those accepted for physical education, I began to look through other lists and to my surprise found myself among those who entered the medical faculty. Turning to the Secretary for Student Affairs (Muravtsev), he received in response: "Next time you will write more legibly." The secretary refused to include me in the list of those enrolled in physical education and said: "You will re-enroll next year." There were no funds for the return trip, nor did I see any sense in it. Having taken a job as a clerk-accountant in the mechanical sub-department of the Road Department of the Kazan Committee of State Structures (Komgosoor), I diligently began to attend lectures both at the physics department and at the medical faculty. In early December, he was mobilized and served as a Red Army soldier in the 5th reserve regiment in the October Barracks of Kazan (student battalion). In 1920, I was seconded to fight the epidemic of typhus, smallpox, cholera and other infections in Yelabuga, Krasnokokshaysky (now Mari El), Menze-liiskiy and other cantons of the Kazan province. At the same time I worked as an employee of the newspaper "Banner of the Revolution", where at that time the editor was V. Bakhmetyev. In the autumn of 1920, together with other students, on the basis of a resolution of the Council of Labor and Defense (SRT), I was reinstated in the 1st year of the medical faculty of KSU.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):250-253
pages 250-253 views

From the history of tuberculosis control in the Republic of Tatarstan

Wiesel A.A.


Scientific development of tuberculosis problems, its diagnosis and treatment began by doctors of Kazan in the late 60s of the XIX century. Classical works on the pathological anatomy of tuberculosis belong to A.V. Petrov, who in 1868 spoke about the "specificity of the contagiousness of tuberculosis", and H. M. Lyubimov, who described the origin of giant cells in tuberculosis granuloma, he also presented the first statistical data on tuberculosis for 1875-1885 and read public lectures about it. In the second half of the last century, Kazan surgeons performed a number of operations for osteoarticular tuberculosis; It is known that koumiss is widely used in the treatment of tuberculosis patients in the steppes of the Volga region and Bashkiria.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):253-254
pages 253-254 views

Caesar ru (To the centenary of the use of U-shaped anastomosis in abdominal surgery)

Fedorov I.V.


In 1992, the 100th anniversary of the use of the U-shaped anastomosis in abdominal surgery was celebrated. Swiss surgeon Caesar Roux proposed to apply a U-shaped gastroenteroanastomosis (GEA) on a disconnected loop of the jejunum with an end-to-side interstitial anastomosis for the treatment of organic pyloric stenosis. The need for this was dictated by severe complications in the form of adductor loop syndrome, "vicious circle" and reflux gastritis observed in other variants of gastroenterotomy. However, this operation, like GIA in general, was abandoned in the next decade due to the high incidence of peptic ulcers of the mouth.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):254-255
pages 254-255 views

New methods of diagnosis and treatment

Role of electrolyte composition and electrolysis conditions in the processes of formation of composite electrochemical coatings

Abdullin I.A.


It is possible to obtain the microhomogeno- us composite electrochemical coatings with necessary properties by variation of electrolyte composition and electrolysis conditions. The proposition of adsorptional stimulation of coprecipitation of dispersed particles with electrodeposited metal and the match between the cathode surface microlief and the dimensions of coprecipitated particles is proposed. The use of periodic current regimes allows to control this phenomenon. Based on the suggested propositions the coating application processes are developed allowing to increase the working capacity of the products wearing out by a factor of 1,5—2.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):247-249
pages 247-249 views

Device for temporary arrest of 4 external bleeding

Izmailov G.A., Izmailov S.G.


The device is proposed for the arrest of external bleeding from soft tissue wounds of skin and subcutaneous fat.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):249-250
pages 249-250 views


About traces of functional activity of acupuncture points and meridians after a person's death

Akhmerov H.U.


A doctor brought up in the traditions of the Pavlovian school is inclined to consider all physiological manifestations of the human body subordinate to the regulatory influences of the nervous system. At the same time, they completely ignore the fact that both in ontogenesis and in phylogeny, the nervous system appears quite late and that up to this point other regulatory mechanisms operate quite effectively in the body, precisely determining the interaction of various tissues and rudiments of organs with each other. These mechanisms are associated with direct, not yet mediated by the nervous system, energy-informational interactions of organs and tissues. It is believed that with the emergence of the nervous system, the former mechanisms of regulation fade into the background, manifesting themselves only in special phenomena that are difficult to explain from the standpoint of pure nervism. Such phenomena include acupuncture.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):230-231
pages 230-231 views

180 years of higher medical education in Kazan


There are events in the annals of Russian higher medical education that will not be lost in the darkness of the past. Russian doctors will always remember and celebrate them. One of such dates is May 14 (May 1, old style), 1814, the opening day of the Medical Faculty of Kazan University.

Kazan medical journal. 1994;75(3):161-166
pages 161-166 views

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