Features of etiology and pathogenesis of acute deep vein thrombosis in children of different age groups. Results of a prospective cohort study in parallel groups

Abstract


Aim. To study the characteristics of the etiology and clinical picture of acute deep vein thrombosis in children of different age groups.

Methods. The article analyzes the diagnosis and treatment of 77 children and adolescents with acute deep vein thrombosis. The features of the history of patients, previous fact of deep venous catheterization were studied. The fact of the presence and absence of clinical symptoms of thrombosis is registered. The results of ultrasound diagnostics are used. All patients underwent a course of anticoagulant therapy. The results of diagnosis and treatment were evaluated taking into account the age of the patients, the presence/absence of the history of catheterization of deep veins.

Results. When comparing different age groups, their distinctive characteristics were revealed: predominant presence of asymptomatic catheter-associated thrombosis in the younger age group (newborns and infants) with symptomatic deep vein thrombosis of various origin in older children. Among the surveyed, the majority (75.3%) had asymptomatic thrombosis. Pain (2.6%), edema (3.9%) and a combination of pain and edema (18.2%) were more common among symptomatic patients with the symptoms of acute vein thrombosis. In some cases, a combination of two or more complaints was noted. Asymptomatic thrombosis in the catheter-associated thrombosis group amounted to 96.6%. All patients below 1 year had a predisposing factor in the history: 95% - preceding vein catheterization, 5% - postoperative period. With a history of venous catheterization, symptoms of thrombosis were detected 9.2 times less frequently than in children without vein catheterization. In the group of children older than a year, the ratio of thrombosis without a predisposing factor was 10.5%, and the ratio of children with symptoms of thrombosis was 1.38 times higher than among children younger than a year. The only fatal outcome: a 17-year-old patient with a history of thrombophilia, thrombosis of the left iliac vein, pulmonary embolism.

Conclusion. Deep vein thrombosis in children of the first year of life in all cases was caused by a predisposing factor: in children during the first year of life in 95% of cases deep vein thrombosis was asymptomatic and was revealed by ultrasound examination.


I N Nurmeev

Kazan State Medical University; Children's Republican Clinical Hospital

Author for correspondence.
Email: nurmeev@gmail.com

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia; Kazan, Russia

L M Mirolubov

Kazan State Medical University; Children's Republican Clinical Hospital

Email: nurmeev@gmail.com

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia; Kazan, Russia

L I Batyrshina

Kazan State Medical University; Children's Republican Clinical Hospital

Email: nurmeev@gmail.com

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia; Kazan, Russia

N N Nurmeev

Kazan (Volga region) Federal University

Email: nurmeev@gmail.com

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

M R Gilmutdinov

Kazan State Medical University

Email: nurmeev@gmail.com

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

A R Nurmeeva

Kazan State Medical University

Email: nurmeev@gmail.com

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

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© 2019 Nurmeev I.N., Mirolubov L.M., Batyrshina L.I., Nurmeev N.N., Gilmutdinov M.R., Nurmeeva A.R.

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