Microstructural features of the thyroid gland in far eastern region goiter endemic zone inhabitants

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Abstract

Background. At present, the use of informative integration criteria for assessing the ecological well-being of the population’s health is relevant. Monitoring of the morphofunctional parameters of the thyroid gland and its functional indices in inhabitants of different regions makes it possible to control the degree of tension of adaptive reserves in response to environmental influences.

Aim. Establishment of the features of the morphofunctional status of the thyroid parenchyma in inhabitants of the territory endemic for goiter in the Far East region.

Material and methods. 168 sectional thyroid glands without morphological signs of tissue pathology were used. Approaches were applied taking into account the age periodization of a person, depending on the mass of the gland and colloid-epithelial relations of the thyroid tissue (I epithelial, II epithelial, colloid types of glands). The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of thyroid gland macro- and microanatomy were studied.

Results. Based on cluster analysis, three morphological groups (types) of thyroid glands were identified: colloidal (61.9%), I epithelial (33.3%), II epithelial (4.7%). In the discriminant analysis, structural components that determine the assignment of the gland to a specific type (hormonal colloid and interfollicular epithelium) were established. In normal-weight glands, variants of the histostructure of colloidal and epithelial type I were equally found. For hypertrophied glands, the morphology of the colloidal type was characteristic (86.67%), the I epithelial type was slightly expressed (13.33%) and the II epithelial type was practically not found. It is determined that in the age aspect the colloidal type is the leading one.

Conclusion. Two factors — morphological stability and functional activity, have been established, which can be considered as informative markers of compensatory-adaptive reactions and the level of activity of the thyroid tissue of far eastern region goiter endemic zone inhabitants.

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About the authors

Kirill I. Ageenko

Scientific Research Center “Arktika” of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Email: kir.ageenko@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8297-931X
SPIN-code: 1647-5767

Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Researcher, Bioelementology and Functional Morphology Research Group

Russian Federation, Magadan, Russia

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
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1. Рис. 1. Гистологическая структура морфологических типов щитовидной железы жителей приморской территории Магаданской области: 1 — тироциты фолликулярного эпителия; 2 — коллоид низкой плотности; 3 — макрофолликул; 4 — десквамированный эпителий; 5 — фолликул среднего диаметра; 6 — фибробласт; 7 — резорбционная вакуоль; 8 — тироциты интерфолликулярного эпителия; 9 — кровеносный сосуд; 10 — микрофолликулы; 11 — коллоид высокой плотности

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2. Рис. 2. Частота морфологических типов щитовидной железы у мужчин приморской территории Магаданской области в зависимости от массы железы (m) и возраста (%)

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3. Рис. 3. Взаиморасположение гисто- и цитологических параметров щитовидной железы жителей приморской территории Магаданской области в корреляционном поле; К — относительный объём коллоида; ФЭ — относительный объём фолликулярного эпителия; ИЭ — относительный объём интерфолликулярного эпителия; ДЭ — относительный объём десквамированного эпителия; Ст — относительный объём стромы; Сс — относительный объём сосудистого компонента; ВТ — высота тироцитов; ДЯТ — диаметр ядер тироцитов; ДФ — диаметр фолликулов

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