Prolonged QT interval on electrocardiogram and fainting — is there always a relationship?

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Abstract

Using a clinical example, the article draws the attention of doctors to the problem of the prolonged QT interval (“long QT”) and the related problem of fainting (syncope). Syncope is a component of long QT syndrome, and syncope is a precursor of sudden cardiac death. However, syncope in a patient with long QT syndrome may have pathogenesis that is completely unrelated to abnormalities of cardiac ion channels. In other words, such a patient may have a second disease as a syntropy relates to prolonged QT interval, to an extent mimicking long QT syndrome. The presented medical history of a 33-year-old patient S. shows the complexity of differential diagnosis of the causes of syncope. The crucial part in the diagnosis, in addition to the clinical picture, was the so-called “tilt test”, little-known to general medical practice, as well as the laboriousness of making a final diagnosis of the long QT Syndrome type 2, which required a molecular genetic study — whole-exome sequencing. Patient S. had vasovagal syncope that not associated with long QT syndrome, but she has a risk of sudden cardiac death, and the article identifies therapeutic and other measures to reduce this risk.

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About the authors

Yu S Mishanina

Kazan State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: mishanina.1998@list.ru
Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

V N Oslopov

Kazan State Medical University

Email: mishanina.1998@list.ru
Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

Yu V Oslopova

Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University

Email: mishanina.1998@list.ru
Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

Yu E Teregulov

Kazan State Medical University

Email: mishanina.1998@list.ru
Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

E V Khazova

Kazan State Medical University

Email: mishanina.1998@list.ru
Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

References

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  2. Clinical guidelines “Ventricular rhythm disturbances. Ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death” (approved by the Russian Ministry of Health). M. 2020. https://bazanpa.ru/download/pdf/?target_url=/minzdrav-rossii-klinicheskie-rekomendatsii-ot01012020-h4961518/ (access date: 29.06.2021). (In Russ.)
  3. Shkol'nikova M.A., Chuprova S.N. Clinical and genetic polymorphism of hereditary syndrome of long QT interval, risk factors for syncope and sudden death. Vestnik aritmologii. 2002; (26): 35–42. (In Russ.)
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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
Action
1. Рис. 1. Холтеровское мониторирование электрокардиограммы пациентки С. Альтернация зубца Т

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