Indoor fungal contamination as a biological risk factor

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Abstract


Aim. To assess the degree of fungal contamination and the species composition of the fungal microbiota of residential apartments in Kazan

Methods. A mycological study of 90 air samples and 60 samples from sites of fungal biodeterioration from the re­sidential buildings of Kazan was carried out using cultural and microscopic methods.

Results. The presence of micromycetes fungi were detected in 90% of air samples and 100% of samples from sites of biodeterioration. Higher fungal species diversity was noted in the sites, compared with air samples. Fungal concentrations in indoor air varied between 8 and 360 CFU/m3. Fungal community composition analysis of the sites of biodeterioration showed that the surfaces were more frequently contaminated by undemanding and capable of growth at different moisture levels fungal species (Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus stolonifer). The resulting fungal plaque can create conditions favorable for aggressive fungal species that actively damage materials (Chaetomium spp., Acremonium spp., Aureubasidium spp). Allergenic fungi, as well as potentially pathogenic and toxin-forming species, were widespread in the air that can be a health risk factor. A quantitative assessment of air mycobiota indicated the moderate level of fungal contamination.

Conclusion. The presence of potentially pathogenic, allergenic and biodegradable fungal species in the sites of biodeterioration has been confirmed, as well as the relationship between airborne fungal contamination and the spread of fungi in indoors, confirming the need to prevent fungal biodeterioration and control indoor air quality.


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About the authors

E V Khaldeeva

Kazan Scientific and Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Author for correspondence.
Email: mycology-kazan@yandex.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

N I Glushko

Kazan Scientific and Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: mycology-kazan@yandex.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

S A Lisovskaya

Kazan Scientific and Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology; Kazan State Medical University

Email: mycology-kazan@yandex.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia; Kazan, Russia

V R Parshakov

Kazan Scientific and Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: mycology-kazan@yandex.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

G G Khaidarova

Kazan Scientific and Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: mycology-kazan@yandex.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files Action
1.
Рис. 1. Частота грибов-микромицетов в воздухе жилых помещений г. Казани (% общего числа проб воздуха)

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2.
Рис. 2. Частота грибов-микромицетов в очагах биоповреждения в жилых помещениях г. Казани (% общего числа проб из очагов)

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3.
Рис. 3. Сопоставление качественного и количественного состава микобиоты воздуха (КОЕ/м3) и очага биоповреждения (КОЕ/дм2); КОЕ — колониеобразующие ­единицы

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4.
Рис. 4. Локализация очагов грибкового биоповреждения (% количества обследованных помещений)

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© 2020 Khaldeeva E.V., Glushko N.I., Lisovskaya S.A., Parshakov V.R., Khaidarova G.G.

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