Capabilities of cytostatic agents usage in ophthalmology

Abstract


Antineoplastic drugs are increasingly used in the treatment of diseases of the vision organ. However, practicing ophthalmologists often deal with lack of information about the choice of drugs with anticancer effect, their mechanism of action, dosage, route of administration, potential side effects including their prevention. Mechanism of action is presented for the most commonly used immunosuppressants in ophthalmology (such as metabolic antagonists, alkylation agents, antineoplastic antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies). Efficiency and routes of administration are described for cytostatics used for the treatment of intraocular tumors (retinoblastoma), for prevention and treatment of proliferative syndrome in ophthalmosurgery complicating the surgery for glaucoma, pterigium and refractive corneal procedures, and presenting the pathogenetic basis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and posterior lens capsule opacity. Possible local side effects of immunosupressors in ocular surgery are presented (epithelial and suture defects, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, cataract progression, endophthalmitis, malignant glaucoma, toxic effect on the ciliary body, keratopathy, hypertensive maculopathy). Also, the issue of the use of cytostatics and immunodepressants for acute and chronic inflammatory eye diseases is discussed (for example, for uveitis, filamentary ke­ratitis, allergic blepharoconjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis and spring ophthalmia, adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis, rosacea keratitis, ocular pemphigoid, recurrent chalazion, scleritis, episcleritis, painful bullous keratopathy, state after keratoplasty and refractive surgery of ocular fibrous capsule). Special attention was paid to the eye neovascularization and common use of intravitreal injections of monoclonal antibodies (ranibizumab, aflibercept) for premature infants’ retinopathy, choroidal neovascularization of various origin (in trauma, myopia, histoplasmosis), neovascular form of age-related macular dystrophy, secondary neovascular glaucoma, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Need for search of new more effective and safe medicines with antineoplastic and immunodepressive action is emphasized for ophthalmology, eye surgery and medicine in general.


N Yu Belousova

Privolzhsky Research Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: Susan29@yandex.ru
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

T I Poltanova

Privolzhsky Research Medical University

Email: Susan29@yandex.ru
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

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