For the 30th anniversary of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: problems remain

Abstract


The review describes perioperative complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Over the past 30 years, laparoscopy has become the «gold standard» for cholecystectomy and one of the most frequently performed procedures in abdominal surgery. Nevertheless, despite the advantages of the method, it has an «Achilles heel» - the frequency of iatrogenic damage to the extrahepatic bile ducts is 3-5 times higher than with an open cholecystectomy. This complication has a negative effect on the survival of patients after surgery, leads to deterioration in the quality of life and is a major source of legal costs in many countries. In general, the total range for any damage to the biliary tract during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is 0.32-0.52%, while the complication rate and mortality rate are 1.6-5.3% and 0.08-0.14%, respectively. Patients who have undergone a complete intersection of the hepaticoholedochus, become «bile cripples» for life. Recurrent cholangitis, strictures of anastomoses with a possible outcome in liver cirrhosis are quite likely in later periods after damage to the intrahepatic bile ducts. Technological efforts to improve the results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy reside. These include the routine use of intraoperative cholangiography, infrared fluorescent cholangiography, etc. Nevertheless, despite the growing number of methods designed to reduce these complications, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. The most important factors ensuring the safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy are recognized: understanding of anatomy, adequate exposure when using electrosurgery, psychological readiness to invite a senior colleague in time for help, the ability to recognize a situation that requires conversion and rejection of laparoscopy.


I V Fedorov

Kazan State Medical Academy

Email: valdamedmed@gmail.com
Kazan, Russia

A N Chugunov

Kazan State Medical Academy

Email: valdamedmed@gmail.com
Kazan, Russia

L E Slavin

Kazan State Medical Academy

Email: valdamedmed@gmail.com
Kazan, Russia

D A Slavin

Kazan State Medical Academy

Email: valdamedmed@gmail.com
Kazan, Russia

V I Fedorov

Tatarstan Regional Clinical Cancer Center

Author for correspondence.
Email: valdamedmed@gmail.com
Kazan, Russia

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