Ovarian hyperstemulation syndrome as a private case of iatrogenic capillary leak syndrome

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Idiopathic capillary leak syndrome was first described in 1960 and later received its name in honor of the discoverer - Clarkson's Disease. However, in the past two decades, more cases have been reported than in the previous 35 years, most likely due to improved recognition, the widespread use of assisted reproductive technologies in the treatment of infertility and the emergence of targer therapy - monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Except for Clarkson's disease, capillary leak syndrome can occur in engraftment syndrome, differentiation syndrome after bone marrow transplantation, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, viral infections, mostly hemorrhagic fevers, some autoimmune diseases, administration of recombinant interleukins, cytostatics, some monoclonal antibodies including treatment with the latest anticancer drugs - immune checkpoint inhibitors, snakebite envenomation, and ricin poisoning. This syndrome is characterized by a sharp increase in vascular permeability for fluid and protein molecules that leads to the loss of fluid into the interstitium, and presents with acute onset of severe edema, often asymmetric, hypotension, polyserositis, hemoconcentration and low blood protein level. In assisted reproductive technology programs, the introduction of gonadotropins results in an increase in estradiol levels, which leads to the development of immunopathological process, accompanied by leukocyte infiltration of blood vessels and secondary hypercytokinemia. Subsequently, the secondary «wave» of cytokines and vasoactive substances secreted in response to the introduction of human chorionic gonadotropin as an ovulation trigger, leads to disruption of interendothelial contacts and the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. It is necessary to conduct a further study of the pathogenesis of capillary leak syndrome, in order to develop promising methods for the prevention and correction of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in assisted reproductive technology programs.

E E Kraevaya

The Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology n.a. V.I. Kulakov

Author for correspondence.
Email: tapnatalia@yandex.ru
Moscow, Russia

Ya A Petrosyan

The Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology n.a. V.I. Kulakov

Email: tapnatalia@yandex.ru
Moscow, Russia

N I Tapil'skaya

The Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology n.a. D.O. Ott

Email: tapnatalia@yandex.ru
Saint Petersburg, Russia

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