Phenotypes of lymphocytes in exudate in atopic dermatitis

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Abstract

Aim. To determine subpopulations of lymphocytes in exudate in atopic dermatitis.

Material and methods. The study included 80 patients with atopic dermatitis according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, who were under dispensary supervision at the Regional Dermatovenerologic Dispensary (Chita) from 2018 to 2021. Two groups (adolescents and adults) and two subgroups (patients with limited and widespread lesions) were formed. Skin exudate sampling was carried out during the period of exacerbation of the disease. The control group consisted of 30 practically healthy volunteers undergoing a medical examination at the same dispensary, having primary health records and meeting the inclusion criteria for the study. Lymphocyte phenotypes were determined in skin exudate by flow cytofluorometry. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel, IBM SPSS Statistics version 25.0, and the Shapiro–Wilk test, Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon U-test, Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance were used. The data were presented by median and interquartile intervals — Me (25%; 75%). The critical indicator of the significance level of the differences was p <0.05.

Results. In the exudate of practically healthy volunteers, obtained by the “skin window” method, no subpopulations of lymphocytes were detected. In the skin exudate of adolescents with limited lesions, the content of lymphocytes was 149.00 (129.75; 157.75) cells/μl, T-lymphocytes (CD3+CD19–) — 109.5 (96.25; 113.75) cells/μl, among them 48.95% active, T-helpers — 42.5 (39.25; 57.50) cells/μl, natural killers (CD3+CD16+CD56+) — 38.50 (36.25; 41.00) cells/μl, however, with the widespread process, the level of lymphocytes increased by 11% (p1=0.002), T-helpers — by 45%, natural killers — by 27%, T-lymphocytes up to 125.00 (110.5;135.75) cells/μl (p1=0.00001). These indicators in adults and the level of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD3+CD8+) in adolescents and adults had no significant differences. The number of T-NK-killers (CD3+CD16+CD56+) in adolescents was higher with a widespread process — 23.00 (11.75; 29.75) cells/μl (p1=0.0001), in adults with a limited process — 18.00 (10.25; 20.75) cells/μl (p2=0.0001). The number of NKCD8+ (CD3–CD16+CD56+CD8+) in adolescents with limited dermatosis was 22.50 (18.25; 26.00) cells/μl, with widespread dermatosis — 1.6 times more (p1=0.0001), in adults with a limited process — 29.50 (25.25; 33.75) cells/μl, with widespread — 27% less (p1=0.0001).

Conclusion. In the skin exudate in atopic dermatitis, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, T-NK-killers, natural killers, CD8-positive NK-killers are detected.

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About the authors

Irina V. Kibalina

Chita state medical academy

Author for correspondence.
Email: vilinia@rambler.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4390-183X

M.D., Cand. Sci. (Med.), Assoc. Prof., Depart. of Dermatovenerology

Russian Federation, Chita, Russia

Namjil N. Tsybikov

Chita state medical academy

Email: thybikov@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0975-2351

M.D., D. Sci. (Med.), Prof., Head, Depart. of Pathological Physiology

Russian Federation, Chita, Russia

Elena V. Fefelova

Chita state medical academy

Email: fefelova.elena@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0724-0352

M.D., D. Sci. (Med.), Assoc. Prof., Depart. of Pathological Physiology

Russian Federation, Chita, Russia

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
Action
1. Рис. 1. Абсолютное количество цитотоксических Т-лимфоцитов (CD3+CD8+) (клетки/мкл) в кожном экссудате при атопическом дерматите (АтД): 1 — подростки с ограниченным АтД; 2 — подростки с распространённым АтД; 3 — взрослые с ограниченным АтД; 4 — взрослые с распространённым АтД

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2. Рис. 2. Абсолютное количество Т-NK-киллеров (CD3+CD16+CD56+) (клетки/мкл) в кожном экссудате при атопическом дерматите (АтД): 1 — подростки с ограниченным АтД; 2 — подростки с распространённым АтД; 3 — взрослые с ограниченным АтД; 4 — взрослые с распространённым АтД

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3. Рис. 3. Абсолютное количество естественных киллеров (NK) (CD3+CD16+CD56+) (клетки/мкл) в кожном экссудате при атопическом дерматите (АтД): 1 — подростки с ограниченным АтД; 2 — подростки с распространённым АтД; 3 — взрослые с ограниченным АтД; 4 — взрослые с распространённым АтД

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4. Рис. 4. Абсолютное количество NK-киллеров, позитивных по CD8 (CD3–CD16+CD56+CD8+) (клетки/мкл), в кожном экссудате при атопическом дерматите (АтД): 1 — подростки с ограниченным АтД; 2 — подростки с распространённым АтД; 3 — взрослые с ограниченным АтД; 4 — взрослые с распространённым АтД

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