Comprehensive assessment of certain trace elements, hormones and enzymes in patients with exogenous-constitutional obesity in predicting transition to metabolic syndrome

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Abstract


Aim. To study the relationship between the trace element status (chromium, zinc and copper) and hormonal activity (insulin, leptin) in women with metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity phenotypes, depending on the type and severity of obesity.

Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare 288 women with exogenous-constitutional obesity aged 25–45 years and healthy women of similar age (n=38). The comparative analysis was carried out in groups of patients with android and gynoid ECO types and varying degrees of obesity. The study was conducted in the NUZ “Department Clinical Hospital of the Kazan station of JSC Russian Railways” between 2016 and 2020. Along with clinical laboratory tests, the indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (including the determination of hormones), the activity of enzyme systems and trace element content were determined. The statistical significance of the differences was assessed by using the non-parametric Spearman's rank correlation test.

Results. It was revealed that the type of obesity associated with the indicators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the activities of catalase and peroxidase, and trace element content. In patients with abdominal obesity, the concentration of copper was higher than in the comparison group, and chromium and zinc — lower than in patients with gynoid obesity and in the control group. In patients with android obesity, a high correlation was found between the serum copper level (r=0.98) and body fat percentage (r=0.74) compared with patients with gynoid type obesity. The correlation of chromium level with the level of blood glucose (r=0.58), triglycerides (r=0.66), cholesterol (r=0.60) and catalase enzyme activity (r=0.54) as well as correlation of zinc level with the level of blood glucose (r=0.74), cholesterol (r=0.77), triglycerides (r=0.90), catalase (r=0.57), and peroxidase (r=0.59) were revealed. Also, significant differences in the level of trace elements in patients with varying degrees of obesity were found.

Conclusion. An increase in copper concentration and a decrease in the concentration of chromium and zinc are unfavorable signs in obese patients associated with the activation of oxidative stress, hyperplastic processes and a high risk of developing a metabolic syndrome.


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About the authors

T V Nikishova

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Author for correspondence.
Email: ntv116@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

I A Kurnikova

Российский университет дружбы народов

Email: ntv116@mail.ru

Russian Federation, г. Москва, Россия

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