Vascular endothelial growth factor role in predicting vascular disorders in pregnant with fetal growth restriction syndrome

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The review covers the up-to-date data of vascular endothelial growth factor role in forming of placental blood circulation in non-complicated pregnancy and in fetal growth retardation syndrome. It is shown that the normal trophoblast invasion to the spiral arteries wall in the myometrium and adequate remodeling of spiral arteries are essential for the normal fetal growth and development. The processes of blood vessels formation - vasculogenesis and angiogenesis - are described in detail. The process of angiogenesis regulation by growth factors and their receptors is reviewed. The importance of angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors coordinated action for the adequate placental microvasculature formation and normal fetal development is described. The growth factor complexes and their receptors formation processes and competition for receptor binding, as well as the role of placental growth factor in uteroplacental complex angiogenesis are analyzed. It is shown that the serum growth factors represent the mechanisms of pathologic reactions in placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction syndrome. Special attention is given to the family of vascular endothelial growth factor as for the most important angiogenesis regulator. To determine the physiological role of vascular endothelial growth factor and to assess the its influence on angiogenesis and adequate uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood circulation formation, the features of vascular endothelial growth factor chemical structure are described. Determining the vascular endothelial growth factor in blood may be used to assess the mother-placenta-fetus system formation. The need for developing the criteria for choosing the optimal delivery term in pregnant with fetal growth restriction syndrome is discussed.

About the authors

E V Ul’yanina

Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia

Author for correspondence.

I F Fatkullin

Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia



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© 2015 Ul’yanina E.V., Fatkullin I.F.

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