Psychosocial adaptation to chronic heart failure in patients with coronary heart disease

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Abstract


Aim. To assess the effects of acquired social status, neurotic conditions, type D personality, cognitive functions, quality of life and adherence to treatment on psychosocial adaptation of patients with coronary heart disease (IHD) to chronic heart failure (CHF), depending on the severity of decompensation.

Methods. 87 patients with coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure aged between 55 and 72 years were ­examined. All patients were divided into two groups depending on the functional class of chronic heart failure [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I–IV]. The first group included 41 patients with NYHA functio­nal class I–II, the second group — 46 patients with NYHA functional class III–IV. For a comprehensive study of the psychosocial adaptation of patients, a set of standardized questionnaires was used: the abridged variant of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (SMOL), a clinical questionnaire for identifying and assessing neurotic condition, the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), 14-question test “Type D Scale-14” (DS14), Morisky–Green test, the short version of the AUDIT questionnaire (AUDIT-C). We collected data on the patient's social status: gender, education, income level. The results obtained were analyzed.

Results. Based on the SMOL personality profiles, patients of the second group were classified as neurotic — an increase was noted in three neurotic scales: hypochondria (U=541; p=0.030), hysteria (U=579; p=0.048), and autism/schizoid (U=577.5; p=0.047) compared with patients of the first group. According to the results of the clinical questionnaire for the identification and assessment of neurotic condition, the greatest differences were found between patients of first and second groups on the scale of autonomic disorders (U=571; p=0.039) and neurotic depression (U=576; p=0.046). Comparing the groups according to the MLHFQ score, quality of life in patients of the second group was markedly reduced (U=447.5; p <0.001). According to the SF-36 questionnaire, a decrease in the quality of life was also found in patients of the second group on the scale “Physical functioning” (U=554; p=0.032) and “Physical component of health” (U=573.5; p=0.044). The cognitive status in patients of the second group was significantly decreased compared with the first group (U=427; p <0.001). No significant differences were found in adherence to treatment between the two groups (U=757; p=0.666). Also, there were no patients with type D perso­nality on both subscales (U=717.5; p=0.483, U=784; p=0.933) and according to the AUDIT-C scores, there are no significant differences between men (U=681.5; p=0.257) and women (U=728.5; p=0.425) in both groups of patients.

Conclusion. Signs of social maladjustment in patients with more severe NYHA functional class of the disease are expressed by significantly more pronounced social isolation (autism), a tendency to avoid communicating with ­others, isolation on their own problems and hypochondriacal attention to the somatic manifestations of chronic heart failure; probably, the main reason that reduces the level of social adaptation is a high score in neuroticism, which leads to a functional decrease in cognitive abilities and a significant deterioration in quality of life.


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About the authors

A G Zhidyaevskij

Kazan State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: zhidyaevskij@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

G S Galyautdinov

Kazan State Medical University

Email: zhidyaevskij@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

V D Mendelevich

Kazan State Medical University

Email: zhidyaevskij@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

A G Gataullina

Kazan State Medical University

Email: zhidyaevskij@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

A O Kuzmenko

Kazan State Medical University

Email: zhidyaevskij@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

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Supplementary files

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1.
Рис. 1. Усреднённые профили, выявленные по сокращённому многофакторному опроснику для исследования личности (СМОЛ), наблюдаемых (Т-баллы). Обозначение шкал СМОЛ: L — лжи; F — достоверности; K — коррекции; 1 (Hs) — ипохондрии; 2 (D) — депрессии; 3 (Hy) — истерии; 4 (Pd) — психопатии; 6 (Pa) — паранойяльности; 7 (Pt) — психастении; 8 (Se) — шизоидности; 9 (Ma) — гипомании

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2.
Рис. 2. Результаты исследования уровня невротизации. Анкетирование с помощью клинического опросника для выявления и оценки невротических состояний (Яхин К.К., Менделевич Д.М., 1978). Обозначение шкал: ШТ — шкала тревоги; ШНД — шкала невротической депрессии; ША — шкала астении; ШИТР — шкала истерического типа реагирования; ШОФН — шкала обсессивно-фобических нарушений; ШВН — шкала вегетативных нарушений

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3.
Рис. 3. Результаты оценки качества жизни по миннесотскому опроснику качества жизни у больных с хронической сердечной недостаточностью

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4.
Рис. 4. Результаты оценки качества жизни по краткой форме опросника для оценки качества жизни (SF-36). Обозначение шкал: ФФ — физическое функционирование; РФОФС — ролевое функционирование, обусловленное физическим состоянием; ИБ — интенсивность боли; ОСЗ — общее состояние здоровья. Обобщающий показатель за 4 шкалы: ФКЗ — физический компонент здоровья; ЖА — жизненная активность; СФ — социальное функционирование; РФОЭС — ролевое функционирование, обусловленное эмоциональным состоянием; ПЗ — психическое здоровье. Обобщающий показатель за 4 шкалы: ПКЗ — психологический компонент ­здоровья

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5.
Рис. 5. Модель психосоциальной адаптации к хронической сердечной недостаточности (ХСН) у пациентов с ишемической болезнью сердца. Социальный статус. Предписанный: пол, возраст. Приобретённый: уровень образование, профессия, должность, доход. Психологические факторы. Личностные особенности: профиль личности, тип личности. Аффективные нарушения: тревожно-депрессивные расстройства. Когнитивные нарушения: когнитивные функции. Качество жизни: изменение качества жизни. Клиническое течение: тяжесть ХСН согласно клиническим рекомендациям. Коморбидная патология: сопутствующие заболевания. Приверженность к лечению. факторы, на которые может оказывать влияние врач.

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