The role of risk factors in the development of speech and language disorders in preschool children

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The article provides an overview of modern literature on the risk factors for the development of speech and language, which can be taken into account by pediatricians when forming a high-risk group of the corresponding contingent of preschool children. The leading risk factor for the development of speech/language disorders in children is childhood developmental brain disorders that arose in the prenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period of a child's life, which is often found in children with cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and after head injuries. The occurrence of disorders is greatly influenced by anatomical defects in the speech apparatus, requiring timely surgical correction, and hearing loss. Impairment or absence of speech/language in children is common causes for visiting a psychiatrist, which is observed in autistic spectrum disorders (including autism), elective mutism, mental retardation, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Many genetic factors which are often found in patients with other hereditary diseases (chromosome disorders, monogenic hereditary diseases, inherited metabolic diseases, genetic speech disorders) play a special role in the development of speech/language and are associated with developmental disorders, intellectual disability and behavioral deviations. Finally, social factors such as socioeconomic status and social structure of the family, family conflict, pedagogical neglect, child abuse and prolonged use of modern digital devices throughout the day contribute to speech/language development disorders in preschool children. Analysis of the causes of speech/language pathology is of great practical importance for improving the management strategy aimed at preventing the manifestation of the disorders in children.

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S Ya Volgina

Kazan State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

A R Ahmetova

Kazan State Medical University

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

L K Shaidukova

Kazan State Medical University

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia

N V Zhurkova

Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

G A Kulakova

Kazan State Medical University

Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia


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