Regional lymph nodes and hematogenous metastasis of cancer

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Aim. Morphological study of the microvasculature of regional lymph nodes in relation to the cancer of the lymph nodes as possible additional or alternative metastasis pathways.

Methods. The lymph nodes of 150 cancer patients (1263 nodes in total), regional to cancer of various localization, were studied. Histological sections staining with hematoxylin and eosin by Van-Gieson’s method, pyronine by Brachet’s method, toluidine blue and picro-Mallory were prepared. An immunohistochemical study was performed using monoclonal antibodies to pan-cytokeratins, CD31, type IV collagen, CD3, CD20, and CD68. The area of metastases to the lymph nodes was determined by using a morphometric grid and used to identify the four study groups. In addition, the immunomorphological reactions of the lymph nodes were taken into account in each group.

Results. It was identified that the microvasculature of the lymph nodes can be involved in the metastatic process along with the lymphatic pathways. At the same time, there is a decrease in vascular wall function and violation of the rheological properties of blood, accompanied by the deposition of intra- and extravascular fibrin. Hematogenous metastasis is largely influenced by the state of lymph node sinuses, in which blood is found, and in some observations — by the expression of CD31 (a marker of blood endothelium). Hematogenous dissemination of cancer often begins after the appearance of lymph node metastases. The greater the anatomical extent of lymph node metastases, the more often tumor cells are present in the blood vessels. In addition, an isolated lesion of the microvasculature with the presence of tumor cells in the extranodal vessels without metastases in the lymph node itself was revealed. It was observed that the invasion of tumor cells into the microvasculature depended on the immunomorphological reactions of the lymph nodes.

Conclusion. The microvasculature of regional lymph nodes can be both an additional and an alternative lymphogenous metastasis pathway of cancer; at the same time, vascular invasion is accompanied by microcirculation disorders and depends on the volume of metastases and the immunomorphological reactions of the lymph nodes.

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About the authors

D E Tsyplakov

Kazan State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Russian Federation, Kazan, Russia


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Рис. 1. Изолированные клетки опухоли и их кластеры. Реакция с моноклональными антителами против пан-цитокератинов. LSAB-метод с докраской гематоксилином. ×400

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2. Рис. 2. Микрометастаз в субкапсулярном синусе. Реакция с моноклональными антителами против пан-цитокератинов. LSAB-­метод с докраской гематоксилином. ×400

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3. Рис. 3. Экспрессия CD31 в эндотелии кровеносных сосудов. LSAB-метод с докраской гематоксилином. ×400

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4. Рис. 4. Синусы, заполненные кровью. Окраска гематоксилином и эозином. ×200

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5. Рис. 5. Конгломераты опухолевых клеток среди эритроцитов. Окраска гематоксилином и эозином. ×200

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6. Рис. 6. Экспрессия CD31 в эндотелии синуса. LSAB-метод с докраской гематоксилином. ×400

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7. Рис. 7. Синусы, содержащие фибрин. Окраска по пикро-Маллори. ×200

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8. Рис. 8. Клетки опухоли и лимфатического узла в окружении внесосудистого фибрина. Окраска по пикро-Маллори. ×200

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9. Рис. 9. Клетки опухоли в окружающей фиброзно-жировой клетчатке и экстранодальных кровеносных сосудах лимфатического узла, свободного от метастазов. Окраска гематоксилином и эозином. ×400

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10. Рис. 10. Клетки опухоли в просвете интранодальных кровеносных сосудов лимфатического узла с микрометастазами. Окраска гематоксилином и эозином. ×400

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11. Рис. 11. Проникновение клеток опухоли в вены коркового вещества из субкапсулярного синуса. Окраска гематоксилином и эозином. ×400

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12. Рис. 12. Проникновение клеток опухоли в сосуды мозгового вещества из промежуточных синусов. Реакция с моноклональными антителами против пан-цитокератинов. LSAB-метод с докраской гематоксилином. ×400

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13. Рис. 13. Опухолевые клетки в просвете кровеносного сосуда, находящиеся в сети из фибрина. Окраска по пикро-Маллори. ×400

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14. Рис. 14. Клетки опухоли в просвете синусов и кровеносных сосудов лимфатического узла, замещённого метастазами. Окраска гематоксилином и эозином. ×200

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15. Диаграмма 1. Частота поражения кровеносного микроциркуляторного русла лимфатических ­узлов (ЛУ) на различных этапах метастазирования (%)

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16. Диаграмма 2. Частота поражения кровеносного микроциркуляторного русла лимфатических ­узлов (ЛУ) в зависимости от характера иммуноморфологических реакций (%)

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