Long-term results of early orthodontic treatment of children aged 3–5 years

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Background. The frequency of dentoalveolar anomalies and the severity of dentoalveolar disorders in children increases with age. Early orthodontic treatment allows to take advantage of the growth and eruption of teeth and stop pathological development before significant compensatory deformities of the dentition occur, which are more difficult to treat.

Aim. To study the long-term results of early orthodontic treatment of children aged 3–5 years.

Material and methods. A prospective study of the long-term results of orthodontic treatment in 50 children aged 3–5 years was carried out. The state of the dentoalveolar system of children was analyzed: the magnitude of the disproportion in the sagittal, transversal and vertical directions; direction and magnitude of displacement of the lower jaw; the presence of anomalies in the development of teeth before and 3.5 years after treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out using the program Statistica 13.3. The Shapiro–Wilk and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests, asymmetry and kurtosis indicators, and the Student's test were used.

Results. A high frequency (52%) of cases of severe occlusion disorders was revealed (occlusion disorders in two planes — 44%, in three — 8%). Often there was a displacement of the lower jaw — 72%. These disorders require early orthodontic treatment. When analyzing the results of early orthodontic treatment after 3.5 years, physiological occlusion was established in 86% of cases: a decrease in the size of the direct sagittal fissure (before treatment 3.9±2.5, after treatment 1.1±1.5; p=0.000005); elimination of the reverse sagittal fissure (before treatment –0.8±0.5, after treatment 0.03±0.1; p=0.000000); decrease in the depth of vertical overlap (before treatment 4.6±0.6, after treatment 2.2±1.1; p=0.000043); elimination of the vertical gap (before treatment 3.12±1.3, after treatment 1.0±2.0; p=0.05011); elimination of exocclusion (before treatment 4.9±2.3, after treatment 0.3±0.9, p=0.000000); elimination of endocclusion (before treatment 5.5±0.7, after treatment 0.7±0.3, p=0.033475); elimination of the displacement of the lower jaw. In 14% of cases in children, the occlusion was not ideal, while the physiological development of the dentition was noted.

Conclusion. Early orthodontic treatment of children aged 3–5 years can eliminate severe disorders and, in most cases, create conditions for the physiological development of the dentoalveolar system.

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About the authors

Anastasia S. Shishmareva

Ural State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: Dolphy2007@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8641-9088
SPIN-code: 1982-3790

M.D., Cand. Sci. (Med.), Assoc. Prof., Depart. of Children's Dentistry and Ortodontics

Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, Russia

Eugenia S. Bimbas

Ural State Medical University

Email: bimbases@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4122-2518

M.D., D. Sci. (Med.), Prof., Depart. of Children's Dentistry and Ortodontics

Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, Russia


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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Рис. 1. Частота нарушений окклюзии в одной плоскости у ­детей 3–5 лет (n=24) по результатам нашего исследования

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2. Рис. 2. Частота нарушений окклюзии в двух плоскостях у детей 3–5 лет (n=22) по результатам нашего исследования

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