Optogenetics and photopharmacology - effective tools for managing cell activity using light

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Contemporary research has been enriched by the new directions in which the light plays a key role as a tool for modulation of cellular activity and invasive monitoring of intracellular ions and other components. The main advantages of these approaches are the possibilities to precisely control the intensity, spectral characteristics and durations of light signals in space and time. This review summarizes the key areas, optogenetics and photopharmacology, - directions that allow to control cellular activity with light. Optogenetics is the use of light-sensitive transmembrane proteins capable of exciting or inhibiting cellular activity under illumination by different wavelengths. In 2003 a light-sensitive protein canalo-rodopsine was isolated and cloned which is capable of inducing ion currents and changing cellular rest potential with its excitation under the blue light when embedded into the neurons or other cell types. Inhibition of cellular activity is caused by expression of other lightsensitive proteins - chloride or hydrogen pumps, or anion-selective ion channels. These principles turns out to be efficacious for the study of the functions of solitary cells and neural nets as well as for the control of living organisms behavior but their use in medicine is complicated because of necessary genetic manipulations. Photopharmacology is based on creating and using of chemical compounds changing conformations and/or activity under the light. Photochromic compounds with the use of photosensitive switches are capable of selective activation or inhibition of the activity of functionally important proteins - receptors, ion channels, enzymes, etc. The principles and the potential use of optogenetics and photopharmacology in the analysis of the neuronal functions and the perspectives for new approaches to treat some diseases of the nervous system are discussed.

P D Bregestovski

Institute of Neurosciences, Kazan State Medical University; Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes, Aix-Marseille University

Author for correspondence.
Email: pbreges@gmail.com
Kazan, Russia; Marseille, France; Marseille, France

A L Zefirov

Institute of Neurosciences, Kazan State Medical University

Email: pbreges@gmail.com
Kazan, Russia

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Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ЭЛ № ФС 77-75008 от 1 февраля 2019 года выдано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор)