No 3 (2015)

Articles
Representative and role model of the web page content
Golovko A.P., Lapin V.N.
Abstract
Today automatic analysis of the web page content is a topical problem. The analysis enables us to solve several practical problems, including detecting the role structure of a page content. Here we can distinguish the main page article, comments of website visitors, advertisements, and other functions. In addition, solving this problem is an important step towards a more profound automatic analysis of website semantic in the future. We have applied the approach defining the role of some html-code fragment in accordance with the way it is represented on the screen, which corresponds to the human way of perception. The developed model allows us to distinguish such html-code fragments acting as the main header and the main article of a page. The main article may contain different elements, such as a text, tables, images, etc. Often other elements (advertisements etc.) are deleted from the main article, and various ways of placing content elements on the screen and page layouts may be applied. The model is an expert system with the knowledge base containing 1) a semantic net reflecting relations between objects and concepts used in problem-solving; 2) a production system containing a set of rules for the inference. The inference strategy is constructed so to exclude any iteration. During the inference, all elements that can play this role are selected, after which the number of them gradually decreases to one. The production system has a hierarchical structure, with each local system consisting of 5-10 rules and having its own local data storage, which allows us to minimize the probability of side effects. This model is implemented as a program using Python programming language. The program reads html-file from the Internet, removes all elements except the main header and main article, and stores the result as a file on a hard disc. The program was tested on news-sites and habrahabr.ru. The proportion of correctly processed pages was 85-90% in case of the table layout of a page and 95-97% when a page was developed as a block.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):3-14
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Evaluating the norm of the complex-valued function derivative with the convex domain of variation of the second order derivative
Dmitriev N.P.
Abstract
Many results related to the so-called comparison theorems and inequalities for derivatives in different classes of differentiable functions have been obtained in the theory of approximation of functions. In what follows we consider the class of differentiable functions with an absolutely continuous derivative on any straight-line segment and essentially restricted by a derivative of higher order. Our work [1] presented the evaluation of the actual performance of differentiable functions with asymmetrical restrictions on the second derivative. In paper [2] we provided the results extended to the class of complex-valued differentiable functions with asymmetric restrictions on the second derivative. We considered a case when the domain of variation of the second-order derivative was an ellipse with one of the focuses at the origin of coordinates. It is worth noting that the problem of evaluating the performance of real or complex-valued functions is related to the problem of estimating the norms of derivatives of such functions. It turned out that in this case the norm of the derivative restricted in the norm of complex-valued functions can be evaluated using Bernoulli splines applied in [5], or Euler splines [3]. Here we have received a bilateral evaluation of the derivative norm of a complex-valued differentiable function with asymmetric restrictions on the second-order derivative, namely, we have considered a case when the domain of variation of second-order derivative is a convex set of a complex plane. If we fit a certain ellipse with one of the focuses at the origin of coordinates in this set and describe another ellipse around this set, it is possible to obtain a two-sided evaluation of the norm of the restricted complex-valued function derivative. This raises a problem of finding ellipses that best encompass the boundary of the given convex set. To get the best inscribed ellipse we can use the maximization of the major semiaxis and the minimization of the distance from the origin of coordinates to the focus as a criterion. To get the best circumscribed ellipse we can use the minimization of the major semiaxis and the maximization of the distance from the origin of coordinates to the focus as a criterion. This problem solved, we will be able to minimize the difference between the upper and lower estimate of the derivative norm. Here we have obtained a bilateral evaluation of the derivative norm of the restricted complex-valued function under the assumption that inscribed and circumscribed ellipses that best encompass the boundary of the area were built as regard to a restricted convex domain of variation of the second-order derivative. Thus, bilateral evaluation of the derivative norm of restricted complex-valued functions with a convex domain of variation of the second-order derivative is expressed through the norm of the function and size of the ellipses covering the boundary of a convex domain.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):15-20
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Fractal analysis and problem-solving to identify the characteristics of time series in system diagnosis
Kaziakhmedov T.B.
Abstract
Fractal analysis is required when solving the problems of system diagnostics associated with time-series parameter changes. There is no economy sector that does not use algorithms based on the fractal analysis theory. However, this theory has long been given little attention and value. The conflict between the symmetry of Euclidean geometry and asymmetry of the real world can be further extended to our modern concept of time. Traditionally, all the events are treated as either random or deterministic. In fractal time, randomness and determinism, chaos and order are coexistent. This is also true for natural systems characterized by local randomness and global determinism. We have studied both linear and nonlinear fractals and analyzed the use of fractal analysis in such tasks as market assessment, assessment of oil companies, and complex system assessment tasks. Our program of Fractal Sets demonstrates the beauty of fractal patterns and the fractals’ property of self-similarity and enables obtaining Julia and Mandelbrot sets of different degrees. The program also allows us to study the behavior of fractal patterns in case of complex C constant changes and obtain complex point data of these sets. It is worth noting that the application of fractal analysis is more interesting and practical when using MatLab and SkiLab(Silab) packages with appropriate fractal analysis modules. We have developed software fractal analysis modules using character-coded mathematic packages indicated above. Moreover, we have developed software modules for building various types of fractals and fractal diagrams. Such solutions are topical in almost all relevant bachelor and master programs. The program of Fractal Sets used C++ programming language and received a Software Application State Registration Certificate.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):20-26
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Generalized algorithm for processing weakly formalized information and applications of such algorithm
Kopyltsov A.A.
Abstract
This paper offers applications of the generalized algorithm for processing weakly formalized information from sensors to ensure safe road traffic. Weakly formalized information is information that cannot be loaded on the computer and/or cannot be processed on the computer without preliminary processing, namely, information formalization. The data arriving from sensors are often weakly formalized information, which means that in order to upload the data they have to be processed. There are special requirements imposed on the systems of processing such data, particularly, the systems have to process weakly formalized information and obtain formalized information which can be further processed on the computer. We have proposed a generalized algorithm for processing weakly formalized data that can be used for information processing in various technical systems, particularly, to ensure safe road traffic. Vehicles are thought to be equipped with various sensors (video, sound, ultrasonic sensors, etc.) providing data on obstacles on the road (buildings, constructions, trees, other vehicles, people, animals, etc.). The data may be insufficient due to such cases when one obstacle covers another, for example, a person can be behind car in the blind spot. The point is in avoiding collision of the car with any obstacle (other car, building, person, animal, etc.). There are two parameters to be considered: driving speed and direction. If the distance between one car and other car or any obstacle gets smaller, a vehicle can change either driving speed or direction, thus ensuring safe road traffic. This paper considers vehicle movement through a T-junction as an example and shows that applying the considered generalized algorithm allows ensuing safe road traffic.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):27-37
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Developing parallel algorithm for research and information system of MD-SLAG-MELT BASED on CUDA technology
Trunov A.S., Voronova L.I., Voronov V.I.
Abstract
Development of new materials with predetermined properties is a priority trend in modern science. Here computer modeling (CM), including molecular dynamics method allowing us to determine a set of properties (structural, thermodynamic and transport) and study the relationship of nanostructure and physical-chemical properties, are widely applied. Computer modeling is ensured through the development of automated information systems (AIS) aimed at expanding research boundaries, optimizing and accelerating scientific work. Research and Information System of «Slag Melt» (RIS MD-SLAG-MELT) is a perfect example of such automated systems [1]. RIS’s data domain supposes that without using distributed computing it is currently possible to calculate group behavior of the systems containing tens of thousands of particles at most. However, certain tasks of describing nanoscale three-dimensional clusters require increasing the dimensions of the model system to millions of particles. It is almost impossible to simulate such system on a local computer in a sequential manner due to time input, as the experiment may take several months, hence distributed computing is required. The authors have developed a parallel algorithm adapting the existing linear algorithm (legacy application) of calculating the forces of intermolecular interaction for distributed computing at CPU and GPU computing device and implemented in RIS MD-SLAG-MELT. The algorithm is based on CUDA distributed parallel programming technology.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):37-45
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Setting the problem of organizational systemanalysis and synthesis
Shulgin O.V.
Abstract
This paper studies organizational systems as open systems and it is devoted to the problems of formalizing the organizational structure of systems in close connection with their system functions (problems of system analysis and synthesis). The work is aimed at setting a general problem of analysis and synthesis of organizational systems and is based on the theory of systems and system analysis methods. Here we consider the general problem of organizational systemanalysis and synthesis through a system approach. Each task is a series of consistently formulated subtasks. The work raises the problems of determining the parameters characterizing elementary objects of organizational systems and gives an idea of elementary functions implemented by these objects, as well as of the relationships between them. We study the peculiarities of analysis of closed and open systems and introduce a description of the relationship between system elements as square matrices. The work sets the problems of environmental impact on the system’s structure, characterizes dependent and independent subsystems and sets a task of system synthesis within the definition of emergent functions (system functions). We consistently set forth synthesis subtasks through defining mathematical functions of environmental impact on the system and its state, system’s impact on the external environment, and changes in the environment impacted by the system. The research resulted in defining the key areas and algorithm for simulating structural relationships of organizational systems relevant for the development of simulation models of organization’s operation and design of information systems for corporate management.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):45-53
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Theoretical justification of the relationship between deep wood compaction and operating characteristics
Krivonogova A.S., Belinogova N.A., Birman A.R.
Abstract
The following paper studies and classifies the existing and new experimental data on changes in physical and mechanical properties of compressed wood. Here we have determined the patterns of changes in physical and mechanical characteristics of compressed wood, deformation properties of soft leaf wood required to develop compaction modes and wood parameters, and opportunities for a complete substitute of precious wood and other scarce and expensive compressed wood materials. We have analyzed the functional dependencies on wood density for physical and mechanical characteristics of the compressed wood, considered the values of quality factors (strength, hardness and wear) and their application at the highest possible compaction and revealed the exact methods for studying the process of deep compaction. The work offers a method for calculating the experimental observation of wood performance parameters. The research is focused on systematizing the existing experimental data and obtaining new data on the changes in physical and mechanical properties of compressed wood, including aspen wood. When studying physical and mechanical properties of wood, a substantial variation of measurement results is observed due to a large number of independent factors. This is particularly true when testing compacted wood, since various conditions and compaction modes are to be considered. Therefore, to achieve objective view on the principles regulating the changes in physical and mechanical properties of compressed wood, one requires careful statistical analysis of many experiments. For the most part, statistical analysis is aimed at identifying the optimal industrial use of compressed wood and prospects of such use, finding the most profitable degrees of wood compaction depending on its use, and analysing compressed wood characteristics depending on its density. The present studies were aimed at determining deformation properties of soft leaf wood required to develop compaction modes and identify their parameters, clarifying the opportunities for a complete substition of precious wood and other scarce and expensive compressed wood materials, and identifying the principles regulating the changes in physical and mechanical properties of compressed wood in order to predict these properties.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):54-61
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Developing a mayonaise sauce flafoured with buckthorn oil
Puretsky A.A., Butova S.N., Soldatova S.Y.
Abstract
Buckthorn oil contains a complex of mineral ingredients, particular, an optimal balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and a great amount of vitamins A and E. When added to oil and fat products, buckthorn oil contributes to their biological value. This paper considers buckthorn oil as one of biologically active components able to improve a products functionality. Functional food products occupy an intermediate position between mass consumption products and medicinal products. This work is aimed at developing a mayonnaise sauce flavoured with buckthorn oil that would have an enhanced bioavailability. As for research methodology, we have considered rapid oxidation and decomposition of buckthorn oil in various industrial processes and the content of tocopherols and carotenoids in bauckthorn oil as a measure for assessing its biological value. In our experiments, we have used the oil made from Hippophaë rhamnoides buckthorn seeds of primary compression. The seeds are secondary raw material remaining after using buckthorn berries for juice production. After being dried to contain 7% moisture, the seeds are screw-pressed to produce oil. We studied the oxidative stability of fresh buckthorn oil by measuring acid and peroxide numbers weekly for three months. Refined, deodorized sunflower oil, a traditional fat component of mayonnaise and mayonnaise sauce, was taken as a reference standard. Oil samples were stored at room temperature in the light. In the course of our study, we developed a recipe of a mayonnaise sauce flavoured with buckthorn oil, evaluated its quality and oxidative stability. As a result, we identified ways of using buckthorn oil in its pure form in oil and fat food products, such as mayonnaise, margarine, and spreads. Key words: oil; product functionalityl; tocopherol; carotenoids; mayonnaise; oxidation.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):61-66
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Modeling of oxygen transport in the human body
Kopyltsov A.V.
Abstract
This work offers a three-dimensional model of erythrocyte motion in the capillary with an account for erythrocyte rolling, volume and e surface area. This model was used to study the motion of red blood cells in the capillary, considering membrane mobility, erythrocyte’s shape and position in the capillary, as well as stability of the cell’s volume and surface area. The study became a basis for numerical estimates and approximation formulas of the resistance exerted by erythrocytes while moving along the vessel, depending on microhemodynamical parameters (blood vessel diameter, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte content, Young’s modulus, speed, cell’s volume and surface area). We have developed a model of a red blood cell aggregation moving through capillary fragments, obtained numerical estimates of the blood flow and vascular resistance of the capillary network, estimated the approximation expression of pressure difference allowing for the blood flow and depending on the hematocrit, plasma viscosity, vessel diameter and length, intervals between red cells arriving in the capillary network, erythrocyte speed, volume, surface area and elastic characteristics. Another model that we have offered is the model for regulating the blood flow and transporting oxygen by vasoactive metabolic products. In this model, we made allowances for the rate of metabolic products produced in body tissues and their physical and chemical properties (such as diffusion coefficients, solubility and permeability); as oxygen transport (metabolic products) between a tissue and red blood cells (capillaries); red blood cells’ motion along the capillaries; blood vessel diameter and length (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins); architecture of the vascular net; hematocrit; transport of metabolic products between post-capillary venules and precapillary arterioles; changes in arteriolar diameter when smooth arteriole muscles are affected by vasoactive metabolic products; veno-arterial difference at the ends of the vascular net; hemodynamics in the blood flow. This model allowed us to study the regulation of blood flow and oxygen transport in the tissues, and to consider, along with the oxygen released by red blood cells and absorbed by body tissues, such parameters as vasoactive metabolic products released by body tissues, transport of such metabolic products to the venous net and further on to precapillary arterioles, where they affect arteriolar muscles and lead to changes in the cross-sectional area of arterioles, which, in its turn, affects hemodynamics in the blood flow, and hence the oxygen transport in the body tissues. Based on these studies, we have obtained numerical estimates and approximation formulas of the time required by the oxygen transport system (OTS) to go from one steady state to another, as well as estimated for blood flow velocity depending on the veno-arterial pressure difference at the ends of the vascular net and the rate of oxygen consumption. This paper also decribes an algorithm for assessing the state of the OTS in the human body judging from the heart rhythm. We have obtained numerical evaluation for the state of OTS of healthy volunteers and introduced an index of OTS state, which can be used to assess general physical working capacity (with an average load) for industrial and other employees. The paper offeres an algorithm for assessing OTS in the body allowing us to evaluate OTS in the case we lack certain data, which is particularly important in the case when we deal with patients rather than with healthy volunteers. In addition, this approach allows us to identify the ways to correct OTS considering the resources available.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):67-77
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Risk factors of low resistance to hypoxia among students living in the middle ob region
Pogonysheva I.A., Pogonyshev D.A.
Abstract
This work evaluates human body resistance towards hypotoxic conditions of the Middle Ob region. The authors tested a group of university students to evaluate oxygen supply of the body and respiratory system resistance to hypoxia and took timed inspiratory (Stange’s test) and expiratory (Genchy’s test) capacity tests. The students were also aked to fill in special questionnaires to identify additional climatic risk factors of oxygen deficiency, such as smoking, chronic respiratory diseases, lack of exercise. The tests revealed gender differences in respiratory resistance to hypoxemia: values for male students were significantly higher than those for female ones. Male students’ average breath holding capacity values were the following: 39.5 ± 1.08 seconds at Genchy’s test, 51.9 ± 1.12 seconds at Stange’s test. At the same time, female students’ breath holding capacity was 30.7 ± 1.67 seconds at Genchy’s test and 43.7 ± 1.05 seconds at Stange’s test. Thus, values of male students are significantly higher than those of female ones. 45% female students and 26% male students had poor breath expiratory capacity, and 40.4% of girls and 28.9% of young men had poor results on Stange’s inspiratory capacity test. Smoking students and students lacking physical exercise showed low resistance to oxygen deficiency. More than 45% of the tested students engaged in additional physical exercise showed the ability to resist hypoxia without significant adverse changes in the respiratory system.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):78-84
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Spread of oil sludge effect
Usmanov I.Y., Ovechkina E.S., Shayakhmetova R.I.
Abstract
The territory of the Samotlor oil field currently locates certain objects that are sources of oil contamination. Remediating polluted lands and building sludge pits are not effective in terms of isolating the pollutants which effect the growth and development of plants when transported through air and soil. According to our analysis, many researchers are concerned about the problem of biogeocenosis impacted by anthropogenic factors. The present paper provides data on the pollutant content in the soil near an oil sludge pit at the Samotlor field. It has been discovered that oil sludge concentrated in pits makes diverse impacts on the environment. The soil texture conditions the way oil products are accumulated and change its chemical composition. This work is aimed at determining pollutants in soil and plants, as well as defining the pollutant transportation range. In the course of research, the authors studied a particular oil sludge pit area, described plant communities and made a chemical analysis of adjacent soil and plants. As a result, the study revealed the accumulation of oil products in loamy soils, and no traces of oil in sandy soils and plants. The negative impact of the oil sludge pit is indirectly indicated by the changes in vegetation and conditions of plants. According to our study, pollutants are deposited and accumulated in loamy and clay soils adjacent to the studied sludge pit. Those plants growing in the sand show no marked traces of oil pollution.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(3):84-94
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