No 1 (2015)

Articles
Results of studying green algae Scenedesmus Meyen in the plankton of the Vakh river
Skorobogatova O.N., Naumenko Y.V., Fedorova V.M., Semochkina M.A.
Abstract
This paper is devoted to the study of algae belonging to the genus of Scenedesmus Meyen, family of Scenedesmaceae , class of Chlorophyceae , phylum of Chlorophyta , and assesses the dynamics of species richness and its development in equivalent to 1 liter of water. The researchers consider the environmental conditions for the development of algae and its spread along the Vakh River, including horizontal and vertical river stations. The paper contains the materials on the ecological and geographical characteristics of the species. The authors have taken into account the materials of the sampling conducted in the river in August 1989 and present the results of phytoplankton study conducted at the river estuary 600 m from the river’s fall into the Ob River during summer and autumn season of 2005-2006. The discussion is based on the year-round research of 2005-2007 conducted along the entire body of the river. The data obtained as a result of observations of the estuarine vertical river station conducted July 10, 2011, are of particular scientific interest. The researchers have used classical algology methods for the study [5, 12]. According to the modern taxonomic data [20], there are 14 intraspecific taxons belonging to the genus of Scenedesmus in the Vakh River. 12 species belonging to the genus of Scenedesmus were identified in the Vakh River for the first time. The algae in more than 50% of the samples belong to the species of Scenedesmus acuminatus , S. apiculatus , S. ellipticus and S. quadricauda . The following species are considered rare algae for the river: Scenedesmus armatus , S. sempervirens , S. circumfusus var. bicaudatus , S. magnus, S. obtusus , S. parvus and S. semipulcher . Some of them were individual samples, such as Scenedesmus circumfusus var. bicaudatus , S. obtusus , S. parvus and S. semipulcher . The study has revealed a positive relationship between the increasing transparency and warmth of the river waters and the increasing species diversity of Scenedesmus genus. The greatest diversity is during the period between the end of July and the first half of August. The most growing algae are Scenedesmus apiculatus , S. ellipticus and S. quadricauda . Scenedesmus quadricauda plays an important role in shaping the overall abundance and biomass in early May, reaching its growing peak in mid-July - early August (with temperature range of 19.8-23.3ºC) and ending its growing season in the first week of December. This species usually dominates the summer-autumn period, ranking third in size in the dominant complex of the plankton in the Vakh River. The horizontal distribution has revealed that the amount of algae was the highest in the conditions of the left bottomland flow of the river estuary and complied with the highest values of algae amount per 1 liter, surpassing the number of algae cells identified at the right bank of the river, whereas the amount of algae in the wake was the lowest.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):3-14
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Features of plants growing in upland bogs in the conditions of oil pollution in the Middle ob Region
Korchagina L.E.
Abstract
Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District - Yugra is one of the largest oil producing regions in the world. Oil and gas production has a significant technological impact on the environment, in as much as oil development, production, and transportation are inevitably accompanied by hydrocarbon pollution. This fact leads to the acute problem of oil pollution of natural objects, as it stresses all species of biota including plants. The researchers identify the links between functional characteristics of plants and environmental conditions of their habitat to predict the response of plants to various anthropogenic impacts and to assess the state of contaminated areas. Based on the results, it is possible to identify local flora species resistant to oil, with a view to recommending them in developing phytomelioration methods. This article presents the results of studying the features of plants growing in upland bogs in conditions of oil pollution in the Middle Ob region. The researchers have studied the local flora species in terms of their pigment system, photosynthetic activity and productivity ( Eriophorum vaginatum L., Sareh acuta L., Typha latifolia L.) The study has revealed that oil pollution of soil reduces the total amount of pigments in assimilating plant organs, which leads to a decrease in photosynthesis processes and minimizes the growth of organic matter. Those plant species which are more resistant to oil (such as Eriophorum vaginatum L. and Sareh acuta L.) are characterized by a decrease in the ratio of a- and b-chlorophylls and the relation of chlorophylls to carotenoids. The pigment system and the photosynthetic activity of plants stand as criteria for assessing the environmental impact on these plants and may also be used as indicators of soil condition in case of oil pollution. Eriophorum vaginatum L. and Carex acuta L. may be recommended for phytomelioration of oil-contaminated soils.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):14-21
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Climatic potential of atmosphere dispersion in the territory of the Urals
Teterin A.F., Markelov Y.I., Vorozhnin V.S.
Abstract
This paper is devoted to the research of speciotemporal variable conditions for self-cleaning of surface atmosphere in the territory of the Urals. For this purpose the method put forward by T.S.Selegej and co-authors has been applied. The researchers have used the data taken from handbooks on the USSR climate issued in 1966 and 1968 to calculate the climatic potential of atmosphere dispersion. The scientists have calculated the climatic potential values of atmosphere dispersion in the Urals on a monthly and annual basis. The calculations have been made at eleven meteorological stations located in Perm, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk and Kurgan regions. Unfortunately, the handbooks on the USSR climate contain no data required for calculations of climatic potential of atmosphere dispersion on territory of Bashkiria. The annual values of climatic potential of atmosphere dispersion vary from 0.47 in Kudymkar to 0.97 in Krasnoufisk. Thus, the annual values of climatic potential of atmosphere dispersion allow the researchers to determine quite favorable conditions for the dispersion of impurities in the atmosphere at ten meteorological stations in the region under study, and extremely favorable conditions for such dispersion at one meteorological station. The monthly values of climatic atmosphere dispersion potential in Sverdlovsk region change from 0.37 (meteorological station in Nizhnij Tagil) to 1.43 (meteorological station in Krasnoufisk), in Perm region - from 0.28 (meteorological station in Kudymkar) to 1.15 (meteorological station in Biser), in Chelyabinsk region - from 0.37 (meteorological station in Zlatoust) to 1.18 (meteorological station in Bredy), in Kurgan region - from 0.37 (meteorological station in Kurgan-Voronovka) to 1.03 (meteorological station in Shatrovo). Therefore, in annual self-cleaning conditions of surface atmosphere in the Urals vary from the extremely favorable to adverse. The executed researches present certain practical importance, as the obtained data on the spaciotemporal variability of climatic atmosphere dispersion potential in the territory of the Urals should been taken into account when planning and realizing particular air quality management measures in the region. Under adverse and extremely adverse conditions for atmosphere self-cleaning it is necessary to reduce the emissions of polluting substances from stationary sources, and also to limit the amount of transport in city streets. Under favorable and extremely favorable conditions for atmosphere dispersion it is possible to increase the emissions from stationary sources to certain limits and to increase the amount of city transport.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):22-30
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Geographic information systems of ecological support for investment and contruction projects at oil and gas production fields
Khromykh V.V., Kuznetsova E.A.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the development of digital thematic maps of the license area based on the spatial analysis in ArcGIS geographic information system (hereinafter GIS). To develop a digital elevation model for the Nivagalsky license area the researchers have used the following process chain: vectoring - typology development - triangulation - spatial analysis. The researchers applied Spatial Analyst module of ArcGIS for working with raster spatial models in the GRID format; topographic map at a scale of 1:100 000 as a material for the databases; and Easy Trace software package, operating in Microsoft Windows, for semi-automatic vectorization of interactive topographic map of the area. After vectorizing four sheets of the topographic map of the license area in Easy Trace we received the following coverage: - large rivers (polygon coverage); - horizontals and elevations (linear and point coverage); - vegetation (polygon coverage). The researchers have used vector coverage contours and elevations digitized from the topographic map as the initial data for the terrain model. DEM (digital elevation model) of the Nivagalsky license area developed as a result of these operations has 14.876 triangles. Based on the analysis of physiographic data (physical geography, topography, natural water) in GIS the researchers have developed digital thematic maps (a hypsometric map, exposure and slope steepness maps) of the Nivagalsky oil and gas field. Southern and south-eastern slope exposures dominate at the tested area. The steepness of the slopes plays a decisive role in the development of the relief, causing the emergence of different denudation and accumulation processes within the slope. A significant part of the site is occupied by slightly sloping areas from 0 to 3°. Digital thematic maps are an essential stage in the preparation of project documents for the industrial development of the field. These maps allow research to obtain comprehensive data on the natural resources during the environmental monitoring of the field, conduct their own research and support the integration of geographic data in different subjects. A series of thematic maps will help facilitate management decisions while monitoring the Nivagalsky oil field and ease the planning of various engineering and construction works. The resulting maps can be used to generate an electronic atlas of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District - Yugra and for landscape zoning of the area.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):30-37
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Natural conditions and major factors of soil formation in the Agan river valley
Korkina E.A.
Abstract
Soil types are identified on the basis of the relationship between soil-forming factors. The major soil formation factors, including lithology, topography, soil temperature, groundwater level, and vegetation, were described during fieldworks at the valley of the Agan River. During these fieldworks the researcher has studied and described the morphological characteristics of soils, given the definition of the mechanical composition of the rocks, studied the basic topography characteristics (such as altitude, exposure and steepness of slopes), identified the groundwater level in the summer-autumn period, produced geobotanical description, and made measurements of soil temperature using a route probe to measure the temperature of the soil horizons. The soils of the Agan River valley are of heterogeneous types, which is primarily due to the lithological and geomorphological conditions associated with the geological history of the territory. Loamy sediments of the Middle Pleistocene period in the left bank of the Agan River valley, together with prolonged low temperatures and vapor in the air create conditions for cryogenic processes in the soil horizons. Cryogenic processes are the main factors shaping so-called “light soils”, which were not identified as a separate soil type in the handbook on “Soil Classification” (1977). These soils could be earlier defined as podzolic, gley-podzolic, or eluvial-gley soils. The soils on sandy sediments of the Upper Pleistocene period dominating along the tributaries of the right bank of the Agan River valley under eluviation were formed as soil alfehumic type, such as illuvial-ferruginous podzols, illuvial-humus podzols, peat-podzolic soils. The right bank of the Agan River valley was formed mainly by lacustrine-alluvial sands, as during the Upper Pleistocene period this bank used to be a water body, therefore during the modern Holocene period the territory is formed by vast expanses of oligotrophic bogs with numerous lakes, which created the conditions for the development of oligotrophic peat soils with peat thickness up to 5 m.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):38-44
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Methods of long-cut timber preservation treatment
Birman A.R., Krivonogova A.S.
Abstract
The following paper defines and analyses the methods of experimental wood treatment and considers some of the ways of timber preservation with respect to improving the quality of timber performance. The authors have studied various hardwoods. When producing test prototypes, the method of paired samples was used. The researchers have analyzed the experimental results of various wood treatment and produced recommendations concerning the choice of timber treatment methods. The paper defines the possibility of using timber borating as a protective means. The authors have obtained the absorption rate and volume parameters for treatment solutions such as water and boric acid and conducted experimental verification of protective ability of compacted wood soaked in a boric acid solution when exposed to neutron fluxes of different densities. Following the experimental research program and methods, the researchers have tested the method of counter-centrifuge timber treatment in the centrifugal force field in a production environment and at a pilot research station, produced recommendations for the use of anti-centrifugal timber treatment in the centrifugal force field and defined the modes for wood treatment on the pilot and production equipment. The authors have also considered the technological methods of wood treatment process resulting from liquid pressure in the rotating impregnating cylinder, obtained experimental findings and produced the succeeding recommendations based on the results of studying counter-centrifugal timber treatment. The researchers have worked through the method of experimental studies combined with a comparative analysis of protective characteristics of samples of timber and protective materials, as well as made conclusions classifying the methods of wood treatment according to three main physical phenomena occurring during timber treatment. The paper defines the qualitative and quantitative rates of wood preservation treatment. During the experiments the researchers have obtained the results characterizing the shortcomings of some wood treatment methods and inefficient treatment methods, defined the inapplicable methods in the production of neutron protective materials, obtained the results of counter-centrifugal treatment method studies and made appropriate conclusions. The researchers have also described the optimizing technological processes of timber treatment techniques under pressure, with the use of autoclave method and the method based on the soaking liquid penetrating the timber under the pressure of centrifugal forces. The paper offers technical solutions of reducing energy consumption during wood treatment by eliminating the costs of creating pressure in the soaking liquid. This approach simplifies the manufacturing process of timber loading and unloading and provides for increased productivity of wood treatment.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):45-48
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Technology of producing chitosan from shell-containing materials
Soldatova S.Y.
Abstract
This paper is aimed at developing a technology of producing chitosan from various shell-containing raw materials: shells of crabs, prawns, small Gammarus crustaceans. To achieve this, the researchers were given the tasks to develop a gentle technology of isolating chitin from raw materials and drying it, provide for complete deacetylation of chitin and produce chitosan, and determine the physicochemical properties of chitosan samples. Based on the experiment the product yield was calculated in terms of raw material (about 11% for the shells of crabs and prawns, and 4% for gammarus) and chitin (79%, 78% and 62% respectively). Using the viscometric method the researcher has established the molecular weight of chitosan samples, which amounted to 72444 dalton for chitosan obtained from crab shells, 63200 Dalton for chitosan obtained from prawn shells, and 57300 dalton for chitosan obtained from the shells of Gammarus. These results are consistent with the data described in reference sources. We can state that the selected conditions of chitosan production allow us to obtain the samples with sufficiently high molecular weight. It should be noted that the molecular weight of produced chitosan depends not only on the kind of raw material, on the method of isolating and deacetylating chitin, but also on the storage conditions and time used for collecting the raw material. The researcher has obtained chitosan from three kinds of raw materials with such purity and physico-chemical characteristics which allow us to use these materials not only for industrial purposes, but also as dietary supplements. The author has used potentiometric titration to determine the degree of chitosan deacetylation. The obtained chitosan samples were characterized using IR-spectroscopy. The study of the spectra of obtained chitin samples has confirmed the equivalence of the resulting chitosan to reference samples.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):48-56
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Collecting and using grape extract as a colorant in cosmetic products
Bondakova M.V., Butova S.N., Soldatova S.Y.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of studies on the extraction of biologically active substances, the flavonoids primarily, from grapes Vitis Vinifera Isabella. The researchers have studied the biochemical composition of whole grapes, as well as their parts (peel, pulp, bone) and have shown that the most amount of flavonoids are found in grape seeds, while most coloring agents are contained in the peel. To be competitive, modern cosmetic products should provide a quick visible effect, be attractive, but also contain preferably natural biologically active substances, which stimulate metabolism and reparative functions of the human skin. The increasing interest of cosmetic producers and consumers to the natural ingredients is associated with both strict limitation in terms of synthetic compounds, and the producers’ desire to make their product more “natural”. The research shows that the demand for “green cosmetics” in Europe has been constantly growing over the past decade. Most popular cosmetic products are those which contain antioxidants helping to protect skin cells from oxidative stress, the negative effects of UV radiation, and thus protecting the skin against premature aging. The natural antioxidants include bioflavonoids, which are natural colorants. This is a group of phenolic compounds, one of the most common and numerous classes of biologically active substances containing aromatic rings with free or bound hydroxyl group. The phenolic compounds, with the aromatic ring contained more than one hydroxyl group, are called polyphenols. The researchers have determined the optimal parameters for the extraction process. Specifically, to extract flavonoids from grape peel it is required to use 95% ethanol as an extractant, and produce the extraction at the temperature of 60°C, with pH 5.0-6.0, liquor ratio of 1:2 for 30 minutes. To increase the yield of biologically active substances it is recommended to freeze the material at a temperature of -18°C. The authors have studied the composition of the obtained extracts, including the coloring substances and phenolic compounds in equivalent of gallic acid and determined the technological characteristics of the obtained extracts, such as resistance to light, storage duration, and temperature. The study has shown that the resulting colorant retains its consumer properties after 4 weeks at a temperature no higher than 5°C when kept in a dark place. The optimum pH should be from slightly acidic to neutral. When kept under the light conditions, the color remains stable for 3 days. The studies help optimize the technology of producing grape extract in order to use it as a colorant and a source of biologically active substances in the manufacture of cosmetic products. The authors have developed the formulation of cosmetic lotions with different concentrations of extracts and studied their organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics. The study has showed that all lotions samples correspond to normative documents in terms of their physical and chemical properties.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):56-62
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Superficial drain from farmsteads in krasnoselkupsky disctrict being a factor of the taz river contamination
Storchak T.V., Ryabukha A.V., Ryabukha E.A.
Abstract
The ecological conditions of water ecosystems in Krasnoselkupsky district are subject to natural and technogenic impact, with a considerable increase of the latter over the past 20 years. The rivers flowing near or through the residential areas highly exposed to industrial impact - construction at water protection zones, oil pollution, contamination with heavy metals and other specific substances. The impact of superficial drain from the settlements on the river bed is sufficient, resulting in technogenesis of geomorphological processes of the river network. The researchers conducted an integrated environmental study of the Taz River within the villages of Krasnoselkup and Tolka in the spring and summer of 2012. The study was aimed at evaluating the impact of surface superficial drain from residential areas on the ecological state of the water body. Bottom sediment is a good sorbent material able to concentrate most pollutants and contaminants. All insoluble and partially soluble compounds are mainly concentrated in the sediments. The most dangerous pollutants in sediments are oil and heavy metals. The researchers have assessed the contaminated sites based on the obtained concentrations of oil in the samples. As a result, the sediments in water bodies of Krasnoselkup district are classified as moderately polluted. The results revealed negative impact of water flow in the studied areas in each case, as well as enabled to assess economic and other impact on the water bodies. These trends and patterns will form the basis of a forecast model, which will allow the researchers to quickly assess the dynamics of negative processes, as well as make management decisions aimed, primarily, at reducing the negative anthropogenic impact on water bodies.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):63-67
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Potential of atmosphere pollution in the East-Ural radioactive contamination zone
Teterin A.F., Markelov Y.I., Aleksandrychev I.P.
Abstract
The East-Ural radioactive contamination zone was generated due to two radiation incidents and one accident at Mayak Production Association. The radioactive polluted territory is located in northern part of Chelyabinsk and Kurgan regions, in southern and southeast part of Sverdlovsk region. The researchers have used physical and statistical method developed in the Main geophysical observatory named after A.I.Voejkov to determine the existential spaiotemporal variability of the meteorological conditions promoting pollution of surface atmosphere. According to this method, the complex characteristic showing the influence of meteorological conditions on the level of surface air pollution is considered to be the potential of atmosphere pollution. To calculate the potential of atmosphere pollution, the authors have used the data on frequency of near-surface air temperature inversions, weak winds, air stagnation and fogs during 1980-1991 registered at eight meteorological stations located in territory of the Urals Department of Hydrometeorology and Environment Monitoring. The meteorological stations are located evenly in the East-Ural radioactive contamination zone and are representative for various districts of the investigated region. The average annual values of atmosphere pollution potential vary from 2.52 (meteorological station in Argayash) and 2.62 (meteorological station in Shatrovo) to 3.22 (meteorological station in Brodokalmak) and 3.12 (meteorological station in Verkhnij Ufaley), i.e. from a zone of middle atmosphere pollution potentials to a zone of high atmosphere pollution potentials. As a rule, during a year the monthly values of atmosphere pollution potential in the East-Ural radioactive contamination zone have two maxima and two minima. When values of atmosphere pollution potential are maximal, the most adverse meteorological conditions for surface atmosphere impurity dispersion are formed, while the minimal quantities of atmosphere pollution potential are characteristic for favorable dispersion conditions. The worst conditions of impurity dispersion are observed within the period from December till February, sometimes till March and from June till July. The best conditions for impurity dispersion are characteristic for the central months of transition climatic seasons, i.e. in April and October. The greatest relative variability of annual and monthly values of atmosphere pollution potential is marked in areas of meteorological stations with the highest values of atmosphere pollution potential, i.e. in meteorological stations in Verkhnij Ufaley, Brodokalmak and Kamensk-Uralskiy. It is worth noting that the obtained data on the existential spaciotemporal variability of atmosphere pollution potential in the East-Ural radioactive contamination zone is important for planning and realizing the measures aimed at quality management of air basin in the given region. In case of raised, high and very high values of atmosphere pollution potential it is necessary to reduce the emissions of polluting substance from stationary sources, and also to reduce the intensity of transportation. In case of low and middle values of atmosphere pollution potential, it is possible to increase the emissions from stationary sources to certain limits and also to increase the amount of transport in cities and settlements.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):68-78
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The problem of ecological self-recovery in the Middle Ob regions subject to antropogenic oil production impact
Usmanov I.Y., Ovechkina E.S., Yumagulova E.R., Ivanov V.B., Shcherbakov A.V., Shayakhmetova R.I.
Abstract
This work is a devoted to a comprehensive assessment of the different anthropogenic impact in the course of oil production in a variety of ecosystems of the Middle Ob region, which has not previously been evaluated. Therefore it is planned to hold systematic studies using different analytical methods to assess various components of ecosystems. The researchers plan to hold a geobotany and resource analysis of integral ecosystems (geobotanic description in areas subject to anthropogenic factors and assessment of changes in the contribution of different plant species in the overall productivity of ecological community); a soil analysis (analysis of the soil transformation under the impact and analysis of the accumulation and redistribution of pollution elements in sediments and soil horizons in the ecosystems of the Middle Ob). The landscape-geographical and hydrological analysis joined with the resource-geobotanical and soil analysis will allow the researchers to determine the similarities and differences in the mechanisms of distribution and natural utilization of various contaminants. The landscape-geographical analysis will highlight the natural alternatives for utilizing the pollutants and, ultimately, allow creating a typology of different ecosystems under anthropogenic stress. A whole plant will be studied for the variability of the productivity parameters of the major biogeocenosis (ecosystems) plant species subject to the anthropogenic stress (morphological analysis of development of plants belonging to the major types of plant communities, accumulation and distribution of biomass in plants under anthropogenic stress; variability of biological productivity in parts of plants; ratio of the autonomic and reproductive parts (reproductive effort); other morphological indices used in the environmental testing). In terms of the physiological and biochemical level, the researchers will hold a physiological and biochemical assessment of the pollutant impact on the vital functions of plants, an evaluation of ecological and physiological parameters of plants in the absence of anthropogenic stress; an assessment of accumulation and distribution of pollutants in plant organs; an assessment of the probability of pollutant accumulation in economically valuable parts of plants (berries, nuts, other parts of plants). In terms of the system-analytical level, it is planned to develop alternative functioning models of different ecosystems and their basic elements subject to anthropogenic pollution; to build a network of pollutant distribution schemes; to develop various percolation models of the conditions for critical levels of pollutants in ecosystems; to develop the technologies for determining critical points for transforming the percolation processes and preventing critical environmental situations. Based on the study, the researchers will be hold a comparative analysis of the parameters characterizing adaptive and destructive changes in ecosystems (biogeocenoses) and plants in order to make a differential assessment of the most vulnerable and stable elements of different ecosystems in the Middle Ob region. On the basis of ecological and socio-economic criteria, the researchers will put forward a scheme to stimulate and optimize the self-recovery of ecosystems under anthropogenic stress in the Middle Ob region.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):79-86
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Noise impact on human physiological parameters and performance
Pogonysheva I.A., Pogonyshev D.A., Krylova A.A.
Abstract
In the study the researchers have assessed the impact of high background noise on the physiological parameters of the nervous system and performance of human body. The study of the nervous system was conducted in two study groups. As for the control group, the acoustic environment of the working area was not characterized by high level of background noise. The study has revealed that the nervous system for those people in the experimental group who were subjected to the high level noise level exceeding the permissible limit at their workplace during the day showed certain changes in its physiological parameters, such as increase in time required for simple and complex reaction to the light signal, reduced strength of the nervous system, reduced mobility of the extinction and activation processes. This lead to poor performance, less concentration, memory degradation, and poor ability to perceive and process information in the experimental group. The representatives of the control group have showed much less changes in the performance by the end of the day, as their performance remained at a high level.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2015;(1):87-93
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